Appendix:Latin First Declension
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Appendix:Latin First Declension

Description

Latin words of the first declension have an invariable stem and are generally of feminine gender. The predominant letter in the ending forms of this declension is a. The nominative singular form consists of the stem and the suffix -a, and the genitive singular form is the stem plus -ae.

There is a small category of masculine exceptions, which generally refer to occupations. These include 'farmer' (agricola, agricolae masc.), 'sailor' (nauta, nautae masc.), 'charioteer' (aur?ga, aur?gae masc.), 'inhabitant' (incola, incolae masc.), 'pirate' (p?r?ta, p?r?tae masc.), 'writer' (scr?ba, scr?bae masc.), and 'poet' (po?ta, po?tae masc).

The first declension also holds three types of Greek nouns, derived from Ancient Greek's Alpha Declension. They are declined irregularly in the singular. Occasionally, these Greek nouns may be declined as if they were native Latin nouns, e.g. nominative athl?ta may be used instead of the original athl?t?s.

Peculiarities

  • The older genitive singular termination is an -?s. This is often used with familia as in pater famili?s and m?ter famili?s.
  • In poetry, the genitive singular - occurs. Aquae becomes aqu.
  • The genitive plural ending -um replaces -?rum. Puellum for puell?rum.
  • Because first declension nouns and second declension nouns display an -?s in the dative and ablative plural, words like equus (horse) and equa (mare) will end up looking alike in these cases. However, if a distinction must be made, equ?s for 'mares' would become equ?bus in the dative and ablative plural. For this reason, the ending -?bus was regularly used in the dative and ablative plurals of the nouns dea (goddess) and filia (daughter).

Declension paradigms

Case Singular Plural
nominative -a -ae
genitive -ae -?rum
dative -ae -?s
accusative -am -?s
ablative -? -?s
vocative -a -ae
locative -ae -?s

Examples:

Greek nouns

Greek nouns
Case Singular Plural
-?, -?s f -?s, -ae m -?s, -ae m
nominative -? -?s -?s -ae
genitive -?s -ae -?rum
dative -ae -?s
accusative -?n -?n / -am -?s
ablative -? -? -?s
vocative -ae
locative -ae -?s

Notes:

  • The plural and dative singular forms equal the forms of pure Latin words.

Examples:

See also


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Appendix:Latin_first_declension
 



 



 
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