Appendix:Korean Swadesh List
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Appendix:Korean Swadesh List

This is a Swadesh list of words in Korean, compared with that of English.

Presentation

For further information, including the full final version of the list, read the popflock.com resource article: Swadesh list.

American linguist Morris Swadesh believed that languages changed at measurable rates and that these could be determined even for languages without written precursors. Using vocabulary lists, he sought to understand not only change over time but also the relationships of extant languages. To be able to compare languages from different cultures, he based his lists on meanings he presumed would be available in as many cultures as possible. He then used the fraction of agreeing cognates between any two related languages to compute their divergence time by some (still debated) algorithms. Starting in 1950 with 165 meanings, his list grew to 215 in 1952, which was so expansive that many languages lacked native vocabulary for some terms. Subsequently, it was reduced to 207, and reduced much further to 100 meanings in 1955. A reformulated list was published posthumously in 1971.

List

No. English Korean
(Hankuke)
IPA Transcription
(Yale romanization of Korean)
1 I ?, ? n?, t na, ce (humble)
2 you (singular) ?, ? n?, ni ne, ni (familiar)
3 he ? k? ku
4 we , u?i, th?i wuli, cehuy (humble)
5 you (plural) n?h?i nehuy (familiar)
6 they k?dl kutul
7 this ? i i
8 that ?, ? k?, t ku (medial), ce (distal)
9 here , j?gi, i?o?t? yeki, ikos
10 there , , , kgi, ko?t?, ti, to?t? keki, kukos, ceki, cekos
11 who , nugu, nug? nwukwu, nwuka (nominative)
12 what , mut?, musn mwues, [adj.] mwusun
13 where ?di eti
14 when '?:nde? encey
15 how tk?e? etteh-key
16 not , ? ?ni, ?n an(i)
17 all , modn, modu [adj.] motun, [adv.] motwu
18 many mann manh-ta
19 some , ?tn, togm etten, cokum
20 few togm cokum
21 other d?n talun
22 one , ? h?n?, h?n hana, han
23 two ?, ? dul, du twul, twu
24 three ?, ? s?e?t?, s?e? seys, sey
25 four ?, ? ne?t?, ne? neys, ney
26 five ta?st? tases
27 big kd? khu-ta
28 long gild? kil-ta
29 wide nt?a? nelp-ta
30 thick tukp?t?a? twukkeW-ta
31 heavy mup?t?a? mwukeW-ta
32 small ta?k?t?a? cak-ta
33 short tat?a? ccalp-ta
34 narrow to?p?t?a? cop-ta
35 thin jat?a? yalp-ta
36 woman , ?, kje?dip?, ka?t?, jda? kyeycip (obsolete, derogatory nowadays), kas (archaic), yeca (, Sino-Korean)
37 man (adult male) , s?a?na?i, na?mda? sanai, namca (, Sino-Korean)
38 man (human being) s?aa?m salam
39 child , , ? ini, a?i, e? elini, ai, ay
40 wife , a?ne?, ma?nu?a? anay, manwula
41 husband , , tia?bi, ja?o, na?mp?jn ciapi (archaic), syaong (obsolete), namphyen (, Sino-Korean),
42 mother , mni, mma? emeni, emma
43 father , a?bdi, a?p?a? apeci, appa
44 animal tims cimsung (
45 fish muoi mwulkoki
46 bird ? s?e? say
47 dog ? ke? kay
48 louse ? i i
49 snake ? pe?m paym
50 worm p?e? pelley
51 tree na?mu namwu
52 forest ? s?up? suph
53 stick ma?k?t?ei maktayki
54 fruit , jme?, j?m yelmay, yelum (dialect)
55 seed ? i ssi
56 leaf ? ip? iph
57 root p?u?i ppwuli
58 bark (of a tree) , na?mukp?ti?, mo?k?p?i namwukkepcil, mokphi (, Sino-Korean)
59 flower ? k?o?t? kkoch
60 grass ?, p?u?, ta?ndi phwul ('herbaceous plant'), canti ('lawn')
61 rope pa?t?tu? pascwul
62 skin s?aa?t? salkach
63 meat , ? koi, s?a koki, sal
64 blood ? p?i phi
65 bone ? p?j ppye
66 fat (noun) kim kilum
67 egg ? a al
68 horn ? p?u? ppwul
69 tail k?oi kkoli
70 feather kit?t? kisthel
71 hair ?, t?, tk? thel(-ek)
72 head , mi, teai meli, taykali (as of animals)
73 ear ? k?i kwi
74 eye ? nun nwun
75 nose ? k?o? kho
76 mouth ?, ip?, tudu?i ip, cwutung-i (as of animals)
77 tooth ?, i, ip?a i, ippal (as of animals)
78 tongue (organ) ?, ? çj, s?e? hye
79 fingernail s?o?nt?o?p? sonthop
80 foot ? pa pal
81 leg tai tali
82 knee mup? mwuluph
83 hand ? s?o?n son
84 wing , nae?, nae? nalay (archaic), nalkay
85 belly ? pe? pay
86 guts ? e? ay
87 neck ? mo?k? mok
88 back ? t tung
89 breast , ? ka?sm, t?t? kasum, cec
90 heart , jmt?o, imda yemthong, simcang (, Sino-Korean)
91 liver ?, ? ka?n, e? kan (?, Sino-Korean), ae (archaic)
92 to drink maida? masi-ta
93 to eat mk?t?a? mek-ta
94 to bite mu?da? mwul-ta
95 to suck p?ada? ppal-ta
96 to spit pe?t?t?a? payt-ta, chim (noun)
97 to vomit , ke?uda?, t?oa?da? keywu-ta, tho-ha-ta (, Sino-Korean)
98 to blow pu?da? pwul-ta
99 to breathe ida? swi-ta
100 to laugh ut?t?a? wus-ta
101 to see bod? po-ta
102 to hear t?t?t?a? tut-ta
103 to know ?lda al-ta
104 to think ?, he?aida?, s?ea?k? heali-ta, sayngkak (noun)
105 to smell , ma?t?t?a?, ne?ms?e? math-ta, naym(-say) (noun)
106 to fear , tu?jp?t?a?, musp?t?a? twulyeW-ta, mwuseW-ta
107 to sleep tada ca-ta
108 to live s?ld? sal-ta
109 to die tuk?t?a? cwuk-ta
110 to kill tu?ida? cwuki-ta
111 to fight , ta?t?uda?, s?a?uda? tathwu-ta, ssawu-ta
112 hunt (noun) ? s?ajaa?da? sanyang hada (
113 to hit , tida?, t?eida? chi-ta, ttayli-ta
114 to cut , pe?da?, tada? pey-ta, calu-ta
115 to split , ? kada?, kaa?dida? kalu-ta (v.t.), kallaci-ta (v.i.),
116 to stab tida? ccilu-ta
117 to scratch k?k?t?a? kulk-ta
118 to dig p?a?da? pha-ta
119 to swim he?da? hey-ta
120 to fly nada? nal-ta
121 to walk kt?t?a? keT-ta
122 to come o?da? o-ta
123 to lie (as in a bed) nup?t?a? nuW-ta
124 to sit a?nt?a? anc-ta
125 to stand sda? se-ta
126 to turn (intransitive) toda? tol-ta
127 to fall ? tdida? tteleci-ta
128 to give tuda? cwu-ta
129 to hold , ta?p?t?a?, put?ta?p?t?a? (pwuth-)capta
130 to squeeze ta?da? ccata
131 to rub ?, mundida?, pibida? mwuncilu-ta, pipi-ta
132 to wash , it?t?a?, p?ada? ssis-ta, ppal-ta
133 to wipe ta?k?t?a? takk-ta
134 to pull kld? kkul-ta
135 to push mild? mil-ta
136 to throw tndida? tenci-ta
137 to tie m?d? may-ta
138 to sew kip?t?a? kip-ta
139 to count sed? sey-ta
140 to say , ko?t?t?a?, maa?da? koT-ta (obsolete), mal-ha-ta
141 to sing , ? puda?, noea?da? pulu-ta, nolay-ha-ta
142 to play noda? nol-ta
143 to float tda? ttu-ta
144 to flow xda? hulu-ta
145 to freeze ?ld? el-ta
146 to swell , put?t?a?, pup?u?da? pus-ta, puphul-ta
147 sun ? h? hay
148 moon ? d?l tal
149 star ? pj pyel
150 water ? mu? mwul
151 rain ? pi pi
152 river ?, ne?, kaa?m nay, kalam
153 lake ? mo?t? mos
154 sea pa?da? pata
155 salt s?om sokum
156 stone ?, to, pa?y to, pawi
157 sand moe? molay
158 dust mndi menci
159 earth (soil) ? x?k? hulk
160 cloud kum kulum
161 fog a?n?e? ankay
162 sky ha?n hanul
163 wind paa?m palam
164 snow ? nun nwun
165 ice ?m elum
166 smoke ?, ne?, jn?i nay, yenki (, Sino-Korean)
167 fire ? pu? pwul
168 ash ? te? cay
169 to burn , t?d?, kup?t?a? tha-ta, kwup-ta
170 road ? ki? kil
171 mountain ?, , ? mwe?, ndk?, s?a?n moy (archaic), (en-)tek, san (?, Sino-Korean)
172 red , puk?t?a?, p?aa?t?a? pwulk-ta, ppalkah-ta
173 green , p?uda?, too?k? phwulu-ta, cholok (, Sino-Korean)
174 yellow , nuda?, noa?t?a? nwulu-ta, nolah-ta
175 white , çida?, ha?ja?t?a? huy-ta, hayah-ta
176 black , kmda?, k?a?ma?t?a? kem-ta, kkamah-ta
177 night ? pa?m pam
178 day ? na?t? nac
179 year ? he? hay
180 warm , ? tp?t?a?, t?a?tt?a?da? teW-ta, ttatus-ha-ta
181 cold , tup?t?a?, ta?da? chup-ta (said of the weather), cha-ta (said of a tangible object)
182 full , , ta?da?, puda?, ka?d?k? cha-ta, pulu-ta (said of one's stomach, i.e. to be satiated), [adv.] katuk
183 new ?, s?e?, s?eo?un say(-loWwun)
184 old ?, ? je?t?, oe?dwe?da? yeys, olay-toy-ta
185 good to?t?a? coh-ta
186 bad na?pda? nappu-ta
187 rotten sk?t?a? ssek-ta
188 dirty tp?t?a? teleW-ta
189 straight ko?t?t?a? kot-ta
190 round tu?da? twungkul-ta
191 sharp (as a knife) ?, ? nak?ao?p?t?a?, p?jodo?k?a?da? nal-khaloW-ta (sharp), ppyocok-ha-ta (pointed)
192 dull (as a knife) mudida? mwuti-ta
193 smooth ? pud?p?t?a? pwutuleW-ta
194 wet t?t?t?a? cec-ta
195 dry mada? malu-ta
196 correct , pada?, ma?t?t?a? palu-ta, mac-ta
197 near ka?k?a?p?t?a? kakkaW-ta
198 far mda? mel-ta
199 right (?) on(-to?k?) olun(-ccok)
200 left ?(?) we?n(-to?k?) oyn(-ccok)
201 at e?s eyse
202 in ?, ?? e?, a?ne? ey, an-ey
203 with ?, ?, ? wa?, kwa?, ?a (k)wa, (i)lang
204 and ?, ?, -?, wa?, kwa?, -s, ki?o? k(wa), -se, kuliko
205 if -?, , -mjn, maja?k?, ma?ni? -myen, manyak (, Sino-Korean), manil (, Sino-Korean)
206 because -?, -ni, t?e?mune? -ni(kka), ttaymwun-ey
207 name im ilum
208 house ? tip? cip
209 wall ?, ? ta?m, pjk? tam, pyek (?, Sino-Korean)
210 deer s?a?sm sasum
211 mouse ? ty cwi
212 rabbit t?o?k?i thokki
213 eagle s?u?i swuli
214 spider kmi kemi
215 face ?u? elkwul
216 body ? mo?m mom
217 navel pe?k?o?p? paykkop
218 finger s?o?n?aa?k? son-kalak
219 sick
(painful)
a?pda? aphu-ta
220 needle pa?n panul
221 clothing ? o?t? os
222 thunder tndu? chentwung (, Sino-Korean origin)
223 lightning pn?e? penkay
224 above ? y uy
225 below ae? alay
226 to cough , ? kit?t?a?, kitim?a?da? kich-ta (obsolete), kich-im-ha-ta
227 to buy s?a?da? sa-ta
228 to choose koda? kolu-ta
229 to grow taa?da? cala-ta
230 to open jda? yel-ta
231 to steal umtida? hwumchi-ta
232 to dream k?uda? kkwu-ta
233 to cry u?da? wul-ta
234 to yawn ? ha?p?um?a?da? haphwum-ha-ta
235 to cook ? jo?i?a?da? yoli-ha-ta (?, Sino-Korean)
236 six jst? yeses
237 seven io?p? ilkop
238 eight jd yetelp
239 nine ao?p? ahop
240 ten ? j yel

External links

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Appendix:Korean_Swadesh_list
 



 



 
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