Appendix:Japanese Verbs
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Appendix:Japanese Verbs

Modern Japanese

This section deals only with Japanese as written and spoken in 21st and late 20th centuries.

Difference between Japanese school grammar and modern linguistic analysis

Japanese school grammar (?, gakk? bunp?) is based on an analysis of Classical Japanese texts written in the kana script. As the kana script is written without spaces, represents morae as the smallest phonological unit, and due to differences between Classical Japanese and Modern Japanese, it is very different from the newer grammar designed to teach Japanese to foreign students (? Nihongo ky?iku bunp?).

Conjugational classes: From a morphological view, regular verbs in Modern Japanese can be roughly classified into two conjugational classes, consonant-stem and vowel-stem. The dictionary form of consonant-stem verbs is stem + -u, and of vowel-stem verbs stem + -ru.

Conjugational class Dictionary form Stem Conjugated forms
Consonant-stem (kaku) kak- kakanai
kakimasu
kaku
kakeba
kak?
Vowel-stem (okiru) oki- okinai
okimasu
okiru
okireba
okiy?

Japanese school grammar, however, uses a very different approach. Due to the moraic kana script, a consonant-stem verb such as kak-u is segmented as ka-ku since other endings cause a change to the kana for the ku part (e.g. kak-anai, kak-imasu, etc.) In addition, only that kana is regarded as the ending in conjugation; the remaining part is considered as particles or auxiliary verbs.

Stem Ending Particles or auxiliary verbs
? ka ? ka nai
? ka ? ki masu
? ka ? ku
? ka ? ke ? ba
? ka ? ko ? u

It is easy to see that for any consonant-stem verb, the "ending" in Japanese school grammar is a kana whose consonant does not change (since it is from the true stem) and whose vowel can change to all five vowels in conjugation. In the fifty-sound table (? goj?on-zu), the ending stays on the same row but can cover all five columns ("grades") in conjugation, so the conjugation of consonant-stem verbs are called five-grade conjugation (? godan katsuy?).

Vowel-stem verbs are more complex. Since Japanese school grammar is designed for Classical Japanese, where most modern vowel-stem verbs such as oki-ru had alternation in the stem-final vowel (e.g. oki-ru used to conjugate to oki-zu, oki-ki, oku(ru), oku-reba, etc.), the unchanging part was ok- and the same reason with consonant-stem verbs caused them to be segmented like o-kiru, even though the ki part never change in Modern Japanese. In conjugation the ru part is dropped or changed mainly to ensure the same set of particles or auxiliary verbs:

Stem Ending Particles or auxiliary verbs
? o ? ki nai
? o ? ki masu
? o kiru
? o kire ? ba
? o ? ki y?

It's easy to see that the "ending" begins with a kana that does not change (since it is from the true stem) and therefore stays on one row and one column ("grade") of the fifty-sound table. For i-stem verbs, that kana is on the i row, so the conjugation is called upper-monograde conjugation ( kami-ichidan katsuy?). For e-stem verbs, that kana is on the e row, so the conjugation is called lower-monograde conjugation ( shimo-ichidan katsuy?). (The names are in reference to a vertically written fifty-sound table where the five rows a, i, u, e, o becomes five columns and the "upper/lower monograde" refers to the column above or below the middle one, u).

The newer grammar designed to teach foreigners follows the morphological analysis and groups the verbs into three classes, Group I (consonant-stem), Group II (vowel-stem), and Group III (irregular). The first two classes are also called -u verbs and -ru verbs, but the stem-ending boundary of consonant-stem verbs is not indicated because it may be blurred by sound changes (e.g. kak-u -> kaita), making their kana-based segmentation (ka-ku) more advantageous.

Japanese school grammar Morphological analysis New grammar
Conjugational class Segmentation Conjugational class Segmentation Conjugational class Segmentation
?(?)?() (godan, "five-grade") ka-ku
? aso-bu
uraya-mu
consonant-stem /kak-u/
/asob-u/
/urayam-u/
Group I or -u verbs ?-? ka-ku
-? aso-bu
-? uraya-mu
?()?()?() (kamiichidan, "upper monograde") miru
? o-kiru
mochi-iru
vowel-stem /mi-ru/
/oki-ru/
/motii-ru/
Group II or -ru verbs ?-? mi-ru
-? oki-ru
-? mochii-ru
?()?()?() (shimoichidan, "lower monograde") heru
? ta-beru
tazu-neru
/he-ru/
/tabe-ru/
/tazune-ru/
?-? he-ru
-? tabe-ru
-? tazune-ru
??() (kahen, "k-irregular") kuru irregular /kuru/ (stem /ko-/) Group III or irregular verbs -kuru
??() (sahen, "s-irregular") suru
ron-zuru
/suru/ (stem /s(i)-/ ~ /se-/)
/ronzuru/ (stem /ronze-/)
-suru
- ron-zuru

Paradigm of verbs: In Japanese school grammar, verbs have only six conjugated forms (although some can have further sound changes) and any further conjugation is done by appending particles ( joshi) or auxiliary verbs ( jod?shi).

Conjugated form ( katsuy?kei) Of consonant-stem verbs Of vowel-stem verbs Derived stem? Conjugated form?
(mizenkei, "irrealis") stem + a stem Yes No
(ren'y?kei, "continuative or stem form") stem + i stem Yes Yes (ends a coordinate clause in formal writing)
(sh?shikei, "conclusive") stem + u stem + ru No Yes (ends a nonpast sentence)
(rentaikei, "adnominal") stem + u stem + ru No Yes (ends a noun-modifying clause)
(kateikei, "hypothetical") stem + e stem + re Yes No
(meireikei, "imperative") stem + e stem + ro/yo No Yes (ends an imperative sentence)

The newer grammar designed for teaching foreigners Japanese, on the other hand, gives a set of key conjugated forms that are immediately useful:

Japanese school grammar New grammar
(Here using that of Minna no Nihongo[1])
Conjugated form Example Conjugated form Example
?(?)?()?() (mizenkei, "irrealis form") kaka
kako
?() (-nai kei, "-nai form")
(also called ?(?)?()?() (hiteikei, "negative form"))
() kaka(nai)
?(?)?()?() (ik?kei, "volitional form") kak?
()?(?) (ukemi sonkei, "passive verb") kakaremasu
() (shieki, "causative verb") kakasemasu
?()?()?() (ren'y?kei, "adverbial form") kaki
kai
?() (-masu kei, "-masu form") () kaki(masu)
??() (-ta kei, "-ta form")
(also called ?(?)?(?)?() (kakokei, "past form"))
kaita
??() (-te kei, "-te form") kaite
?()?(?)?() (sh?shikei, "terminal form") kaku ?(?)?()?() (jishokei, "dictionary form") kaku
?()?()?() (rentaikei, "adnominal form") kaku
?(?)?()?() (kateikei, "hypothetical form") kake ?()?()?() (j?kenkei, "conditional form")
(also called ??() (-ba kei, "-ba form"))
kakeba
?()?()?() (meireikei, "imperative form") kake ?()?()?() (meireikei, "imperative form") kake
?(?)?()?()?(?) (kan?d?shi, "potential verb") kakeru ?(?)?() (kan?, "potential verb") ? kakemasu

Conjugation classes

In traditional Japanese grammar, modern Japanese has five verbal conjugational classes: godan (five-grade), kami ichidan (upper monograde), shimo ichidan (lower monograde), ka-gy? henkaku (k- irregular), and sa-gy? henkaku (s- irregular). Some English-language resources simplify them to three: Group I (consonant stem, comprising godan), Group II (vowel stem, comprising the ichidan's), and Group III (irregular). The first two groups are also known as -u and -ru verbs, respectively, in reference to the dictionary form (i.e. the nonpast) endings.

Five-grade ( godan)

Five-grade ( godan) is the class of consonant stem verbs and is the largest verb class with native vocabulary. The stem-final consonants include -k, -g, -s, -t, -n, -b, -m, -r, and -w. The dictionary form is formed by attaching -u to the stem, making ? (ku), ? (gu), ? (su), ? (tsu), ? (nu), ? (bu), ? (mu), ? (ru), and ? (u). Traditionally, the stem-final consonant is considered as part of the inflecting suffix, so a verb like (kaku, "to write", stem kak-) is segmented as ??? (ka-ku), with the inflecting part being -ku. Since the stem-final consonant play a role in some of the conjugation patterns, we include it in the paradigm below as well.

Dictionary form Base
mizenkei

ren'y?kei

sh?shikei

rentaikei

kateikei

meireikei
Volitional1 onbin forms Notes
kaku
kak- kaka-
??
kaki
??
kaku
??
kaku
??
kake-
??
kake
??
kak?
?
kaita, kaite
?
oyogu
oyog- oyoga-
?
oyogi
?
oyogu
?
oyogu
?
oyoge-
?
oyoge
?
oyog?
oyoida, oyoide
hanasu
hanas- hanasa-
?
hanashi
?
hanasu
?
hanasu
?
hanase-
?
hanase
?
hanas?
hanashita, hanashite
matsu
mat- mata-
??
machi
??
matsu
??
matsu
??
mate-
??
mate
??
mat?
?
matta, matte
?
shinu
sin- shina-
??
shini
??
shinu
??
shinu
??
shine-
??
shine
??
shin?
?
shinda, shinde
?
asobu
asob- asoba-
?
asobi
?
asobu
?
asobu
?
asobe-
?
asobe
?
asob?
asonda, asonde
yasumu
yasum- yasuma-
?
yasumi
?
yasumu
?
yasumu
?
yasume-
?
yasume
?
yasum?
yasunda, yasunde
kaeru
kaer- kaera-
?
kaeri
?
kaeru
?
kaeru
?
kaere-
?
kaere
?
kaer?
kaetta, kaette
iu
iw- iwa-
??
ii
??
iu
??
iu
??
ie-
??
ie
??
i?
?
itta, itte
?
2
Special conjugation (empty slots are regular)
iku
ik- itta, itte
?
For the verb iku "to go"
kudasaru
kudasar- kudasari, kudasai(-masu)
?, ?()
kudasai
?
For the honorific verbs irassharu, ossharu, kudasaru, nasaru, gozaru
tou
tow- t?ta, t?te
?
For the two verbs tou "to ask" and kou "to ask, to beg"
Notes
  1. For volitional forms such as kakou, some versions of the katsuy?kei system list the kako- part as an alternative mizenkei, and some list it as a seventh katsuy?kei form. The -ou ending is spelt in historical kana orthography (?) as -au (e.g. yasumou as ?), reflecting its historical derivation.
  2. Historically, the -w ending for all such verbs was originally a -p, hence the historical kana spelling (?) for, say, is , with the six katsuy?kei forms , , , , , .

Upper monograde ( kami ichidan)

Upper monograde ( kami ichidan) is the class of regular vowel stem verbs whose stems end in -i. The dictionary form is formed by attaching -ru to the stem, making an ?? (i-dan, "i-row") kana plus ? (ru). Traditionally, the final syllable (Ci) of the stem is considered part of the inflecting suffix, so for example (kariru, "to borrow", stem kari-) is segmented as ???? (ka-riru), with the inflecting part being -riru. (If there is only one syllable in the stem, the whole word becomes the inflecting part.) As the final syllable in the stem does not change or affect the conjugational patterns, we will leave it out in the paradigm below.

Dictionary form Base
mizenkei

ren'y?kei

sh?shikei

rentaikei

kateikei

meireikei1
miru
mi- mi-
?
mi
?
miru
??
miru
??
mire-
??
miro, miyo
??, ??
Notes
  1. -ro is the spoken imperative and -yo is the written imperative.

Lower monograde ( shimo ichidan)

Lower monograde ( shimo ichidan) is the class of regular vowel stem verbs whose stems end in -e. The dictionary form is formed by attaching -ru to the stem, making an ?? (e-dan, "e-row") kana plus ? (ru). Traditionally, the final syllable (Ce) of the stem is considered part of the inflecting suffix, so for example (taberu, "to eat", stem tabe-) is segmented as ???? (ta-beru), with the inflecting part being -beru. (If there is only one syllable in the stem, the whole word becomes the inflecting part.) As the final syllable in the stem does not change or affect the conjugational patterns, we will leave it out in the paradigm below.

Dictionary form Base
mizenkei

ren'y?kei

sh?shikei

rentaikei

kateikei

meireikei1
deru
de- de-
?
de
?
deru
??
deru
??
dere-
??
dero, deyo
??, ??
Notes
  1. -ro is the spoken imperative and -yo is the written imperative. The verb kureru "to give" has an irregular imperative form kure.

k-irregular (? ka-gy? henkaku)

This class holds the irregular verb (kuru, "to come").

Dictionary form
mizenkei

ren'y?kei

sh?shikei

rentaikei

kateikei

meireikei
kuru
ko-
?
ki
?
kuru
kuru
kure-
koi

s-irregular (? sa-gy? henkaku)

This class holds the irregular verb (suru, "to do"). Note the suppletive potential form (dekiru, "to be able"). When used as a light verb, it is usually used to turn an non-inflecting word into a verb such as (benky? suru, "to study"), ? (bikkuri suru, "to be surprised"), in which case the conjugation is the same. However, a number of words which involve suru (mostly single kanji + suru) conjugate differently: those with suru after a /Q/, such as (tassuru), have different causative and passive forms; those with suru voiced after a moraic nasal, such as (ronzuru), have a hybrid conjugation between s- irregular -zuru and kami ichidan -jiru; and some with suru after i or ku, such as (aisuru), have a hybrid conjugation between s- irregular -suru and godan -su.[2]

Verb and context mizenkei1 ren'y?kei sh?shikei rentaikei kateikei meireikei2
passive
~(?)
causative
~(?)
negative
~
volitional
~(?)?
suru, noun + suru sareru
?
saseru
?
shinai
?
shiy?
?
shi
?
suru
suru
sure
seyo, shiro
,
single kanji ending in /Q/ + suru
e.g. tassuru
serareru, shirareru
?, ?
shisaseru
?
shinai
?
shiy?
?
shi
?
suru
suru
sure
seyo, shiro
,
single kanji ending in /n/ or /?/ + zuru
e.g. ronzuru
jirareru, zerareru
?, ?
jisaseru
?
jinai
?
jiy?
?
ji
?
zuru, jiru
,
zuru, jiru
,
zure, jire
,
zeyo, jiro
,
single kanji ending in i or ku + suru
e.g. aisuru
sareru
?
saseru
?
sanai, shinai
?, ?
shiy?, s?
?, ??
shi
?
suru, su
, ?
suru, su
, ?
sure, se
, ?
seyo, shiro, se
, , ?
Notes
  1. When used with older auxiliaries such as the negative ? -nu, the older mizenkei, se- (ze- for zuru) is used.
  2. -ro is the spoken imperative and -yo is the written imperative.

Inflected forms

In traditional Japanese grammar, verbs have the six basic forms called katsuy?kei listed below, from which most of their inflected forms can be derived.

katsuy?kei Stem? Inflected form?
(mizenkei, "irrealis") Yes No
(ren'y?kei, "continuative or stem form") Yes Yes
(sh?shikei, "conclusive") No Yes
(rentaikei, "adnominal") No Yes
(kateikei, "hypothetical") Yes No
(meireikei, "imperative") No Yes

Notes: mizenkei "irrealis" is named after its use with -ba in Classical Japanese: kakaba "if one writes", in contrast with the realis kakeba "as, when, because one writes". It is a stem used to form the negative, passive, causative, and the volitional. ren'y?kei is named in reference to its use followed by y?gen "inflecting words". It is the infinitive as an inflected form, and also a stem used to form some inflected forms as well as compound verbs. sh?shikei is the conclusive, and is also the "plain" or "dictionary form" in which verbs are generally cited. rentaikei is named in reference to its use followed by taigen "non-inflecting words". It is the adnominal, also used to conclude a clause modifying a noun. In modern Japanese the sh?shikei always has the same shape as the rentaikei, but in Classical Japanese it does not for some classes. kateikei "hypothetical" is a stem only used with -ba to form the provisional conditional. meireikei is the imperative.


There are a large number of suffixes that can follow verbs to express grammatical categories in Japanese, and this section deals with suffixes that are not verbs themselves. Note that a verb can be conjugated several times by chaining auxiliaries, e.g. (taberu, "to eat") to the causative (tabesaseru, "to make (someone) eat") then to the polite form (tabesasemasu) and finally to the negative ? (tabesasemasen, "does not make (someone) eat"). As such, the actual number of inflected forms of a verb can be very large. The most common, one-level inflected forms of verbs are listed below:

Paradigm of godan verbs with -k, -g, and -s stems
Example word kak- oyog- hanas-
Mizenkei stem ?? kaka- ? oyoga- ? hanasa-
Negative kakanai oyoganai hanasanai
Passive kakareru oyogareru hanasareru
Causative kakaseru oyogaseru hanasaseru
Ren'y?kei ?? kaki ? oyogi ? hanashi
Polite kakimasu oyogimasu hanashimasu
Desiderative kakitai oyogitai hanashitai
Evidential kakis? oyogis? hanashis?
Onbin stem ?? kai- ? oyoi- (< ?-) (= ren'y?kei)
Past ? kaita ? oyoida ? hanashita
-tara conditional kaitara oyoidara hanashitara
Representative kaitari oyoidari hanashitari
Conjunctive or -te form ? kaite ? oyoide ? hanashite
Nonpast (= sh?shikei = rentaikei) ?? kaku ? oyogu ? hanasu
-ba conditional (from kateikei stem) ? kakeba oyogeba hanaseba
Potential ??? kakeru ?? oyogeru ?? hanaseru
Imperative (= meireikei) ?? kake ? oyoge ? hanase
Volitional (from alt. mizenkei stem) ? kak? oyog? hanas?
Note
  • (iku, "to go", stem ik-) has the irregular onbin stem iQ-, hence the past is (itta), the conjunctive is (itte), etc. Otherwise, it is a regular godan verb with -k stem.
Paradigm of godan verbs with -t, -n, and -b stems
Example word tat- shin- yob-
Mizenkei stem ?? tata- ?? shina- ?? yoba-
Negative tatanai shinanai yobanai
Passive tatareru shinareru yobareru
Causative tataseru shinaseru yobaseru
Ren'y?kei ?? tachi ?? shini ?? yobi
Polite tachimasu shinimasu yobimasu
Desiderative tachitai shinitai yobitai
Evidential tachis? shinis? yobis?
Onbin stem ?? taQ- ?? shiN- ?? yoN-
Past ? tatta ? shinda ? yonda
-tara conditional tattara shindara yondara
Representative tattari shindari yondari
Conjunctive or -te form ? tatte ? shinde ? yonde
Nonpast (= sh?shikei = rentaikei) ?? tatsu ?? shinu ?? yobu
-ba conditional (from kateikei stem) ? tateba ? shineba ? yobeba
Potential ??? tateru ??? shineru ??? yoberu
Imperative (= meireikei) ?? tate ?? shine ?? yobe
Volitional (from alt. mizenkei stem) ? tat? ? shin? ? yob?
Paradigm of godan verbs with -m, -r, and -w stems
Example word yom- kaer- kaw-
Mizenkei stem ?? yoma- ? kaera- ?? kawa-
Negative yomanai kaeranai ?? kawanai
Passive yomareru kaerareru ?? kawareru
Causative yomaseru kaeraseru ?? kawaseru
Ren'y?kei ?? yomi ? kaeri ?? kai
Polite yomimasu kaerimasu ?? kaimasu
Desiderative yomitai kaeritai ?? kaitai
Evidential yomis? kaeris? ?? kais?
Onbin stem ?? yoN- ? kaeQ- ?? kaQ-
Past ? yonda ? kaetta ? katta
-tara conditional yondara kaettara kattara
Representative yondari kaettari kattari
Conjunctive or -te form ? yonde ? kaette ? katte
Nonpast (= sh?shikei = rentaikei) ?? yomu ? kaeru ?? kau
-ba conditional (from kateikei stem) ? yomeba kaereba ??? kaeba
Potential ??? yomeru ?? kaereru ??? kaeru
Imperative (= meireikei) ?? yome ? kaere ?? kae
Volitional (from alt. mizenkei stem) ? yom? kaer? ? ka?
Notes
  1. The honorific verbs (irassharu), (ossharu), (kudasaru), (nasaru), (gozaru) have irregular imperative forms and ren'y?kei stems used with the auxiliary verb (-masu), formed by changing the -r to -i (rather than the regular ren'y?kei -ri or imperative -re). Otherwise, they are regular godan verbs with -r stems.
  2. The verb (aru, "to be, to exist") has the suppletive negative form (nai, "non-existent, not"), which is an adjective. Otherwise, it is a regular godan verb with -r stem.
  3. The verbs (tou) and (kou) have irregular onbin stems formed by changing the -w to a lengthening mora, hence the past is (t?ta), (k?ta), the conjunctive is (t?te), (k?te), etc. Otherwise, they are regular godan verb with -w stems.
Paradigm of kami ichidan and shimo ichidan verbs
Example word mi- de-
Basic stem (= mizenkei = ren'y?kei) ? mi ? de
Negative ? minai ? denai
Passive ? mirareru ? derareru
Causative ? misaseru ? desaseru
Polite ? mimasu ? demasu
Desiderative ? mitai ? detai
Evidential ? mis? ? des?
Past ?? mita ?? deta
-tara conditional ? mitara ? detara
Representative ? mitari ? detari
Conjunctive or -te form ?? mite ?? dete
Nonpast (= sh?shikei = rentaikei) ?? miru ?? deru
-ba conditional (from kateikei stem) ? mireba ? dereba
Potential ? mirareru
? mireru (nonstandard)
? derareru
? dereru (nonstandard)
Imperative (= meireikei) ?? miro (spoken)
?? miyo (written)
?? dero (spoken)
?? deyo (written)
Volitional (from mizenkei stem) ? miy? ? dey?
Note
The verb (kureru, "to give (me or someone of lower rank)") has the irregular imperative form (kure). Otherwise, it is a regular shimo ichidan verb.
Paradigm of the k- irregular verb (kuru, "to come")
Word kuru
Mizenkei stem ? ko-
Negative ? konai
Passive ? korareru
Causative ? kosaseru
Ren'y?kei ? ki
Polite ? kimasu
Desiderative ? kitai
Evidential ? kis?
Past ?? kita
-tara conditional ? kitara
Representative ? kitari
Conjunctive or -te form ?? kite
Nonpast (= sh?shikei = rentaikei) kuru
-ba conditional (from kateikei stem) kureba
Potential ? korareru
? koreru (nonstandard)
Imperative (= meireikei) koi (spoken)
koyo (written)
Volitional (from mizenkei stem) koy?
Paradigm of the s- irregular verb (suru, "to do")[2] (empty slots are regular)
Word suru (regular) tassuru ronzuru aisuru
Mizenkei stem ? sa-
? se- (archaic)
? shi-
? se-
? shi-
? ji-
? ze-
? aisa-
? aishi-
Negative ? shinai ? jinai ? sanai
? shinai
Passive ? sareru ? serareru
? shirareru
? jirareru
? zerareru
Causative ? saseru ? shisaseru ? jisaseru
Ren'y?kei ? shi ? ji
Polite ? shimasu ? jimasu
Desiderative ? shitai ? jitai
Evidential ? shis? ? jis?
Past ?? shita ?? jita
-tara conditional ? shitara ? jitara
Representative ? shitari ? jitari
Conjunctive or -te form ?? shite ?? jite
Nonpast (= sh?shikei = rentaikei) suru zuru
jiru
suru
? su
-ba conditional (from kateikei stem) sureba zureba
jireba
sureba
seba
Potential dekiru = passive ?? seru
Imperative (= meireikei) shiro (spoken)
seyo (written)
jiro (spoken)
zeyo (written)
shiro (spoken)
seyo (written)
? se
Volitional (from mizenkei stem) shiy? jiy? shiy?
s?

When there are several auxiliaries following a verb, they generally occur in this order:

  • Causative -seru ~ -saseru
  • Passive/spontaneous/honorific(/potential) -reru ~ -rareru (~ -eru)
  • Desiderative -tai (if this suffix is present, further inflection becomes i-adjective like)
  • Polite -masu
  • Negative -nai, -nu ~ -n
  • Evidential -s? (if this suffix is present, further inflection becomes na-adjective like; not used with -masu)
  • Suffixes expressing obligatory categories

The causative and passive auxiliaries have shimo ichidan conjugation. The desiderative auxiliary -tai have adjectival inflection. The evidential -s? behaves like a nominal. The other two non-final auxiliaries, polite -masu and negative -nai, have the following paradigms:

Paradigm of the polite auxiliary (masu) ~ (masuru, rare)
Auxiliary masu
Mizenkei stem mase-
masho-
Negative ? masen
Negative past masen deshita
Ren'y?kei mashi (only used as a stem)
Past ? mashita
-tara conditional mashitara (super-polite)
Conjunctive or -te form ? mashite (super-polite)
Nonpast (= sh?shikei = rentaikei) masu (adnominal use is super-polite)
masuru (rare)
-ba conditional (from kateikei stem) ? masureba (super-polite)
maseba (rare)
Imperative (= meireikei) mase (only used with some honorific verbs)
mashi (ditto, rare)
Volitional (from alt. mizenkei stem) ? mash?
Paradigm of the negative auxiliaries (nai) and ? (nu) ~ ? (n)
Auxiliary nai ? nu ~ ? n
Mizenkei stem nakaro-
Ren'y?kei naku (adverbial)
nakaQ- (stem)
? zu (adverbial)
Past ? nakatta
-tara conditional nakattara
Representative nakattari
Conjunctive or -te form ? nakute
? naide
Evidential ? nas?
nasas?
Nonpast (= sh?shikei = rentaikei) nai ? nu
? n
-ba conditional (from kateikei stem) ? nakereba neba
Volitional (from mizenkei stem) ? nakar?
Note
  • Compared with (nai), ? (nu) is more old-fashioned while ? (n) n can be colloquial, old-fashioned or dialectal (except that it is mandatory after (masu)).
  • The conjunctive form (nakute) and (naide) have different uses: when linking verbs, the former simply joins two clauses while the latter means "without", equivalent to (zu ni). The former is used with the conditional particle ? (wa) and the concessive particle ? (mo), while the latter is used with auxiliay verbs like (morai), ? (kudasai), (hoshii), e.g. ? (iwanakute mo ii, "it's ok if you don't say it"), ? (iwanaide kudasai, "please don't say it").
  • As with i-adjectives, the volitional ? (nakar?) is now largely replaced by (nai) + (dar?).

Basic inflected forms

Here are the first set of inflected forms commonly taught in textbooks.

Plain forms
Form Conjugation kaku (base kak-) miru (base mi-)
Nonpast sh?shikei / rentaikei kaku
miru
Past ren'y?kei + -ta
(with sound changes for five-grade verbs)
kaita
mita
Negative nonpast mizenkei + -nai kakanai
?
minai
Negative past mizenkei + -nakatta kakanakatta
minakatta
Polite forms
Form Conjugation kaku (base kak-) miru (base mi-)
Nonpast ren'y?kei + -masu kakimasu
?
mimasu
Past ren'y?kei + -mashita kakimashita
mimashita
?
Negative nonpast ren'y?kei + -masen kakimasen
mimasen
?
Negative past ren'y?kei + -masen deshita kakimasen deshita
mimasen deshita
?

Note: The verb aru "to be, to exist" does not have the negative formed in this way. The plain negative is the adjective nai "nonexistent, not be", and the polite negative is nai desu ? or arimasen .

All these forms can occur in the predicate position of a sentence (i.e. at the end, where the plain form is considered to be in the sh?shikei form).

??()?()???(?)? / ?(?)? - Arisu wa mainichi k?h? o nomu / nomimasu. - Alice drinks coffee every day.
??()?(?)?()?()??(?) / ?(?)?? - Arisu no denwabang? o shiranai / shirimasen. - I don't know Alice's telephone number.
()??()?()??()??(?)? / ?(?)? - Kin?, tomodachi ga ie ni kita / kimashita. - Friends came to my house yesterday.
?()?()?() / ?()? - Sensh? hatarakanakatta / hatarakimasen deshita ka. - You didn't work in the last week?

The plain forms can also be used to modify a noun, or in the predicate position of a clause modifying a noun, when occurring before it (here the plain form is to be considered in the rentaikei form in traditional grammar):

?()?()?(?)??(?)?()?(?) - watashi ga ashita noru hik?ki - the plane that I'll take tomorrow (lit. the-tomorrow-taken-by-me plane.)
?(?)?()??()?(?) - kodomo no inai f?fu - a couple who have no child (lit. the children-lacking couple.)
()?(?)? - tomu ga kin? katta pasokon - the computer that Tom bought yesterday (lit. the yesterday-bought-by-Tom computer.)
10??()?()?(?) - toppu 10 ni hairanakatta kotoba - words that didn't enter the top 10 (lit. the non-entered-to-top-10 words.)

Infinitive

The infinitive (= ren'y?kei), apart from deriving nouns or used in the construction of compound verbs, can be used for the non-final predicates when linking several predicates together in a sentence.

?()??()???()??()? - kimi ga utai, boku wa odoru - you sing; I dance

This is called ? ren'y? ch?shi and it is mainly used in written language. The non-final predicates do not conjugate for tense or politeness. Iru "to be" in these positions are usually replaced by its humble form oru and put in ren'y?kei as ori .

Another use of the infinitive is in the grammar pattern verb/clause + ni + motion verb.

?()???(?) - Asobi ni kita ze. - I came to play
?(?)?(?)??(?)?()??(?)???(?)? - Gogo, nimotsu o tori ni ikimasu. - I will go to fetch my luggage this afternoon.

Certain kinds of compound verbs are produced by attaching a word to the continuative form of a verb; for example: ~ (-yasui, "easy to do"), ~? (-kata, "way of doing something"), ~ (-kaesu, "to do something over again"). Other constructions include ~ (-tai, "to want to do something"), ~ (-nagara, "while doing something"), ~ (-nasai, "please do something") (used only between friends or to someone of a lower rank), ~? (-s? da, "to seem likely to do something").

Conjunctive form with ?

The conjunctive or te form is spinoff of the continuative form by attaching the particle ? to it. For godan (five-grade) verbs, the same kinds of sound changes with ~? applies. The particle ? can be used to link several predicates together, as illustrated below:

??()(?)??()?(?)? - Arisu wa maiban ie e kaette, terebi o mimasu. - Alice returns home and watches TV every night.
()?(?)?()?()??(?)??()?()?? - Kin? toshokan e itte, benky? shimashita. - I went to library and studied yesterday.

When used at the end of a sentence it makes a light command:

?()! - Tasukete! - Help!
??! - Yukkuri shite itte ne! - Take it easy!

More often, this form is part of certain kinds of expressions: ~? (after doing something), ~??() (it's OK to do something), ~??/?/? (it's not ok to do something), ~? (please do something), ~? (to be doing something), ~? (to be in the state of ...), ~? (to be always doing something), ~? (to do something to others), ~? (to do something for me), ~? (to receive the favor of doing something), ~? (to do something in preparation), ~? (to do something completely or accidentally), ~? (to try doing something), etc. When followed by motion verbs like and as a set expression, the basic meaning is to do something towards a direction (e.g. is "return", is "go back", while is "come back"), and the notion of the direction can be abstract (towards the future, up to the present, come to the state, etc.)

Imperative form

The imperative form () is often irregular in honorific speech; in other cases it can be rude in everyday conversation except when quoted or used in ?-clauses. It is conjugated:

  • godan verbs: change the -u to -e. For example, becomes .
  • ichidan verbs: change the -ru to -ro. For example, becomes .
  • irregular verbs: kuru becomes koi, suru becomes shiro.

Volitional form

The volitional form carries the meaning of "let's do something". It has the same meaning when used alone and means "try to do" when followed by ?. It also means "I want to do something", but a less direct way to say this is to follow it by ?. The conjugation is:

  • godan verbs: change the -u to -?. For example, becomes .
  • ichidan verbs: change the -ru to -y?. For example, becomes .
  • irregular verbs: kuru becomes koy?, suru becomes shiy?.

Hypothetical conditional form

One way to say "if" is to attach ? to the of a verb, which is formed by changing the final vowel u (whether in -u, -ru, kuru, suru) to an e. "A?B" implies that A is a condition for B to happen.

Potential form

  • godan verbs: change the -u to -eru. For example, becomes .
  • ichidan verbs: change the -ru to -rareru. For example, becomes ?.
  • irregular verbs: kuru becomes korareru, suru becomes dekiru.

Sometimes the ra can be left out (a practice called ). The result can be further conjugated like an ichidan verb; for example, ? (unbelievable).

Causative form

  • godan verbs: change the -u to -a (but -wa if it has no consonant) and attach seru. For example, becomes ?.
  • ichidan verbs: change the -ru to -saseru. For example, becomes ?.
  • irregular verbs: kuru becomes kosaseru, suru becomes saseru.

The result can be further conjugated like an ichidan verb. Sometimes the is abbreviated as a single ? and conjugates as godan verbs. The object is usually introduced with ?, but when there is another object with ? (such as "A made B sing a song"), ? is used instead.

Passive form

  • godan verbs: change the -u to -a (but -wa if it has no consonant) and attach reru. For example, becomes ?.
  • ichidan verbs: change the -ru to -rareru. For example, becomes ?.
  • irregular verbs: kuru becomes korareru, suru becomes sareru.

The result can be further conjugated like an ichidan verb. Aside from the passive voice (where the performer of the verb is introduced with ? or ?), the form is also used to show politeness in which case the sentence structure does not change. In casual speech, the can be abbreviated as a single ? and conjugates as godan verbs. The passive form is sometimes used for a victimhood state, for example, ?? is not "was run away by the rabbit", but "rabbit ran away, resulting in loss".

Causative passive form

  • godan verbs: change the -u to -a (but -wa if it has no consonant) and attach serareru. For example, becomes .
  • ichidan verbs: change the -ru to -saserareru. For example, becomes .
  • irregular verbs: kuru becomes kosaserareru, suru becomes saserareru.

In godan verbs, except those that end in ?, the middle part of the causative passive would frequently contract. For example, would contract to . Likewise, the result can be further conjugated as an ichidan verb.

Irregular conjugation related to polite speech

  • The imperative form of is .
  • The imperative form of some godan verbs have the ru replaced with i:
Verb Imperative form
? ?
?5?()??
Hagaki o gomai kudasai.
Please give me five postcards.

The i-ending imperative forms may be followed by mase:

!
Irasshaimase!
Welcome!
  • Similarly, comes from , which is a polite form of .

Transitivity

Japanese transitive and intransitive verbs are called (tad?shi) and (jid?shi) in Japanese respectively. Intransitive verbs usually take only a subject marked with ? (ga) or ? (wa), while transitive verbs can also take an object marked with ? (o).

?()?()??()?()??() - sensei ga jugy? o hajimeru. - The teacher starts the class.
?()?()??() - jugy? ga hajimaru. - The class starts.

Intransitive verbs may also take a noun phrase that would be considered an "object" in English. This is mostly marked by ? (ni), similar to an indirect object.

?()?()??()??(?) - dangan ga watashi ni atatta - The bullet hit me.

A motion verb can also be used with ? (o) even though it is intransitive in Japanese.

?()??()? - hashi o wataru - to cross the bridge

When the transitive verb used with ~ (tai) to express desire, or in the potential form, the object is usually marked with ? (ga), but ? (o) is also OK.

?()??(?)? - mizu ga nomitai. - I want to drink water.

Passive forms ~(?) (-(ra)reru) usually become intransitive and causative forms ~(?) (-(sa)seru) usually become transitive. ~ (-tearu) forms usually become intransitive.

?()??(?) - mado ga akete aru. - The window is opened.

Verb pairs

A Japanese verb pair consists of a transitive verb and an intransitive verb sharing the same root, with the former serving as the causative/active voice, and the latter as the mediopassive voice.

?(?)?()??(?) - nedan o ageru - (Someone) raises the price.
?(?)?()??(?) - nedan ga agaru - The price rises.
  • Transitivity counterpart constructed on the same root with inflection (modern ).
  • inflection as transitive:
Verb pair Transitivity Old Japanese Modern Japanese
to attach trans. ?(?)? (tuku, ) ?(?) (tsukeru)
intrans. ?(?)? (tuku, ?) ?(?)? (tsuku)
to lengthen trans. ?(?)? (nobu, ) ?(?) (noberu)
intrans. ?(?)? (nobu, ) ?(?) (nobiru)
  • inflection as intransitive:
Verb pair Transitivity Old Japanese Modern Japanese
to burn trans. ?(?)? (yaku, ?) ?(?)? (yaku)
intrans. ?(?)? (yaku, ) ?(?) (yakeru)
  • Transitive constructed by attaching Old Japanese auxiliary verb ? and/or intransitive constructed by attaching Old Japanese auxiliary verb ? (or rarely ?).
  • With ?:
Verb pair Transitivity Old Japanese Modern Japanese
to decrease trans. ?(?) (ferasu, ?) ?(?) (herasu)
intrans. ?(?)? (feru, ?) ?(?)? (heru)
to wake trans. ?(?) (samasu, ?) ?(?) (samasu)
intrans. ?(?)? (samu, ) ?(?) (sameru)
to fill trans. ?(?) (mitasu, ?) ?(?) (mitasu)
intrans. ?(?)? (mitu, ) ?(?) (michiru)
  • With ? or ?:
Verb pair Transitivity Old Japanese Modern Japanese
to sting/to be stung trans. ?(?)? (sasu, ?) ?(?)? (sasu)
intrans. ?(?) (sasaru, ?) ?(?) (sasaru)
to raise/to rise trans. ?(?)? (agu, ) ?(?) (ageru)
intrans. ?(?) (agaru, ?) ?(?) (agaru)
to see/to seem trans. ?(?)? (miru, ) ?(?)? (miru)
intrans. ?(?)? (miyu, ) ?(?) (mieru)
  • With both:
Verb pair Transitivity Old Japanese Modern Japanese
to transfer trans. ?()? (utusu, ?) ?()? (utsusu)
intrans. ?()? (uturu, ?) ?()? (utsuru)
to stray trans. ?()? (fadusu, ?) ?()? (hazusu)
intrans. ?()? (faduru, ) ?() (hazureru)
to move close trans. ?(?)? (yosu, ) ?(?) (yoseru)
intrans. ?(?)? (yoru, ?) ?(?)? (yoru)
to erase trans. ?(?)? (kesu, ?) ?(?)? (kesu)
intrans. ?(?)? (kiyu, ) ?(?) (kieru)

Stem forms

These are the basic forms of verbs as taught in Japan. Verbs have six associated stem forms; three of these each appear in two different ways that are not given separate names, but are used in disjoint contexts. The izenkei (, classical perfective form) is also called the kateikei (, hypothetical form in modern Japanese). The sh?shikei (, terminal form) and rentaikei (, attributive form) are identical for verbs in modern Japanese.

Prototype
okiru taberu kaku iku hagu sasu matsu shinu yobu nomu horu kau tou kuru suru
Class ? ?
kami-1 shimo-1 ka-5 ka-5 ga-5 sa-5 ta-5 na-5 ba-5 ma-5 ra-5 wa-5 wa-5 ka-hen. sa-hen.
Stem ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? irreg. irreg.
oki- tabe- kak- ik- hag- sas- mat- shin- yob- nom- hor- ka(*p)- to(*p)- irreg. irreg.
Mizenkei () ? irreg.
Imperfective (general) oki- tabe- kaka- ika- haga- sasa- mata- shina- yoba- noma- hora- kawa- towa- ko- irreg.
Mizenkei () ? ?
Imperfective (volitional) oki- tabe- kako- iko- hago- saso- mato- shino- yobo- nomo- horo- kao- too- ko- shi-
Ren'y?kei () ? ?
Continuative (-i) oki tabe kaki iki hagi sashi machi shini yobi nomi hori kai toi ki shi
Ren'y?kei () ? ?
Continuative (other) oki- tabe- kai- i_- hai- sashi- ma_- shin- yon- non- ho_- ka_- tou- ki- shi-
Sh?shikei ()
Terminal okiru taberu kaku iku hagu sasu matsu shinu yobu nomu horu kau tou kuru suru
Rentaikei ()
Attributive okiru taberu kaku iku hagu sasu matsu shinu yobu nomu horu kau tou kuru suru
Izenkei ()
Classical Perfective okire- tabere- kake- ike- hage- sase- mate- shine- yobe- nome- hore- kae- toe- kure- sure-
Meireikei ()
Imperative (written) okiyo tabeyo kake ike hage sase mate shine yobe nome hore kae toe koi seyo
Meireikei ()
Imperative (spoken) okiro tabero kake ike hage sase mate shine yobe nome hore kae toe koi shiro

The ren'y?kei (, -i form), sh?shikei (, terminal form), rentaikei (, attributive form), and meireikei (, imperative form) can appear on their own. The other inflections require suffixes.

Complex forms

Form Classes Stem Suffix Result is Examples
Passive 1, kuru imperfective (general) shimo-1 verb
5 imperfective (general) shimo-1 verb ?
suru irreg. irreg. shimo-1 verb
Causative 1, kuru imperfective (general) or shimo-1 verb
5 imperfective (general) or ? shimo-1 verb ?
suru irreg. irreg. shimo-1 verb or
Potential 1 imperfective (general) shimo-1 verb
5, kuru, 1 (colloq.) classical imperfective ? shimo-1 verb , ?
suru defective defective ( in compounds)

Other forms

Form Classes Stem Suffix Result is Examples
Volitional 1, kuru, suru imperfective (volitional) indeclinable ?, ,
5 imperfective (volitional) ? indeclinable ,
Negative all imperfective (general) i-adjective ?, ?, ,
Negative (archaic) all imperfective (general) ? indeclinable ,
Negative Continuative (-zu) 1, 5, kuru imperfective (general) ? indeclinable , ,
suru irreg. irreg. indeclinable
Negative Conjunctive (-naide) all imperfective (general) indeclinable , , ?, ?
Past tense 1, kuru, suru, (ka,sa,ta,ra,wa)-5 continuative (other) ? indeclinable , , , , , , , , ,
(ga,na,ba,ma)-5 continuative (other) ? indeclinable , , ,
Conjunctive (-te) 1, kuru, suru, (ka,sa,ta,ra,wa)-5 continuative (other) ? indeclinable , , , , , , , , ,
(ga,na,ba,ma)-5 continuative (other) ? indeclinable , , ,
Hypothetical (-ba) all classical imperfective (hypothetical) ? indeclinable ?, , ,
Conditional (-tara) 1, kuru, suru, (ka,sa,ta,ra,wa)-5 continuative (other) indeclinable ?, , , ?
(ga,na,ba,ma)-5 continuative (other) indeclinable ?, ?, ?, ?
Currently incomplete

Suffixes to the continuative (-i) form

There are several suffixes that attach to the continuative (-i) form. These are some of the most common:

Form Suffix Result is Examples
Formal (-masu) irregular verb ?
Desire (-tai) i-adjective ?

Classical Japanese

The following table shows the conjugations of classical verbs as well as the modern equivalents in historical kana orthography. Note the "school grammar" terminology and notion of verb forms. A conjugation table for auxiliary verbs appears at Appendix:Japanese auxiliary verbs (todo).

[3]
(classical) (modern)

conjugation
class
?
consonant
of suffix

example
word

irrealis

cont.

terminal

attrib.

realis

imperat.

conjugation
class
?
consonant
of suffix

example
word

irrealis

cont.

terminal

attrib.

hypot.

imperat.

yodan
four-grade
?? -k- ?(?)? yu.ku ? ka ? ki ? ku ? ku ? ke ? ke
yodan
four-grade
?? -k- ?(?)? yu.ku ? ka ? ki ? ku ? ku ? ke ? ke
?? -g- ?(?)? ko.gu ? ga ? gi ? gu ? gu ? ge ? ge ?? -g- ?(?)? ko.gu ? ga ? gi ? gu ? gu ? ge ? ge
?? -s- ?(?)? ma.su ? sa ? si ? su ? su ? se ? se ?? -s- ?(?)? ma.su ? sa ? si ? su ? su ? se ? se
?? -t- ?(?)? u.tu ? ta ? ti ? tu ? tu ? te ? te ?? -t- ?(?)? u.tu ? ta ? ti ? tu ? tu ? te ? te
?? -h- ?()? omo.hu ? ha ? hi ? hu ? hu ? he ? he ?? -h- ?()? omo.hu ? ha ? hi ? hu ? hu ? he ? he
?? -b- ?(?)? to.bu ? ba ? bi ? bu ? bu ? be ? be ?? -b- ?(?)? to.bu ? ba ? bi ? bu ? bu ? be ? be
?? -m- ?(?)? yo.mu ? ma ? mi ? mu ? mu ? me ? me ?? -m- ?(?)? yo.mu ? ma ? mi ? mu ? mu ? me ? me
?? -r- ?(?)? to.ru ? ra ? ri ? ru ? ru ? re ? re ?? -r- ?(?)? to.ru ? ra ? ri ? ru ? ru ? re ? re

ra-hen
r- irregular
?? -r- ?(?)? a.ri ? ra ? ri ? ri ? ru ? re ? re ?? -r- ?(?)? a.ru ? ra ? ri ? ru ? ru ? re ? re

na-hen
n- irregular
?? -n- ?(?)? si.nu ? na ? ni ? nu ?? nuru ?? nure ? ne ?? -n- ?(?)? si.nu ? na ? ni ? nu ? nu ? ne ? ne

shimo-ichidan
lower-monograde
?? -k- ?(?)? keru ? ke ? ke ?? keru ?? keru ?? kere ?? keyo ?? -r- ?(?)? ke.ru ? ra ? ri ? ru ? ru ? re ? re

shimo-nidan
lower-bigrade
?? (a) ?(?) u ? e ? e ? u ?? uru ?? ure ?? eyo
shimo-ichidan
lower-monograde
?? (a) ?(?)? eru ? e ? e ?? eru ?? eru ?? ere ?? eyo
?? -k- ?(?)? u.ku ? ke ? ke ? ku ?? kuru ?? kure ?? keyo ?? -k- ?(?) u.keru ? ke ? ke ?? keru ?? keru ?? kere ?? keyo
?? -g- ?(?)? a.gu ? ge ? ge ? gu ?? guru ?? gure ?? geyo ?? -g- ?(?) a.geru ? ge ? ge ?? geru ?? geru ?? gere ?? geyo
?? -s- ?(?)? yo.su ? se ? se ? su ?? suru ?? sure ?? seyo ?? -s- ?(?) yo.seru ? se ? se ?? seru ?? seru ?? sure ?? seyo
?? -z- ?(?)? ma.zu ? ze ? ze ? zu ?? zuru ?? zure ?? zeyo ?? -z- ?(?) ma.zeru ? ze ? ze ?? zeru ?? zeru ?? zere ?? zeyo
?? -t- ?(?)? su.tu ? te ? te ? tu ?? turu ?? ture ?? teyo ?? -t- ?(?) su.teru ? te ? te ?? teru ?? teru ?? tere ?? teyo
?? -d- ?(?)? i.du ? de ? de ? du ?? duru ?? dure ?? deyo ?? -d- ?(?)? deru ? de ? de ?? deru ?? deru ?? dere ?? deyo
?? -n- ?()? tadu.nu ? ne ? ne ? nu ?? nuru ?? nure ?? neyo ?? -n- ?() tadu.neru ? ne ? ne ?? neru ?? neru ?? nere ?? neyo
?? -h- ?()? kanga.hu ? he ? he ? hu ?? huru ?? hure ?? heyo ?? -h- ?() kanga.heru ? he ? he ?? heru ?? heru ?? here ?? heyo
?? -b- ?()? sira.bu ? be ? be ? bu ?? buru ?? bure ?? beyo ?? -b- ?() sira.beru ? be ? be ?? beru ?? beru ?? bere ?? beyo
?? -m- ?(?)? to.mu ? me ? me ? mu ?? muru ?? mure ?? meyo ?? -m- ?(?) to.meru ? me ? me ?? meru ?? meru ?? mere ?? meyo
?? -y- ?(?)? ko.yu ? e ? e ? yu ?? yuru ?? yure ?? eyo ?? -y- ?(?) ko.eru ? e ? e ?? eru ?? eru ?? ere ?? eyo
?? -r- ?(?)? ha.ru ? re ? re ? ru ?? ruru ?? rure ?? reyo ?? -r- ?(?) ha.reru ? re ? re ?? reru ?? reru ?? rere ?? reyo
?? -w- ?(?)? u.u ? we ? we ? u ?? uru ?? ure ?? weyo ?? -w- ?(?) u.weru ? we ? we ?? weru ?? weru ?? were ?? weyo

kami-ichidan
upper-monograde
?? -k- ?(?)? kiru ? ki ? ki ?? kiru ?? kiru ?? kire ?? kiyo
kami-ichidan
upper-monograde
?? -k- ?(?)? kiru ? ki ? ki ?? kiru ?? kiru ?? kire ?? kiyo
?? -n- ?(?)? niru ? ni ? ni ?? niru ?? niru ?? nire ?? niyo ?? -n- ?(?)? niru ? ni ? ni ?? niru ?? niru ?? nire ?? niyo
?? -h- ?(?)? hiru ? hi ? hi ?? hiru ?? hiru ?? hire ?? hiyo ?? -h- ?(?)? hiru ? hi ? hi ?? hiru ?? hiru ?? hire ?? hiyo
?? -m- ?(?)? miru ? mi ? mi ?? miru ?? miru ?? mire ?? miyo ?? -m- ?(?)? miru ? mi ? mi ?? miru ?? miru ?? mire ?? miyo
?? -y- ?(?)? iru ? i ? i ?? iru ?? iru ?? ire ?? iyo ?? -y- ?(?) o.iru ? i ? i ?? iru ?? iru ?? ire ?? iyo
?? -w- ?(?)? wiru ? wi ? wi ?? wiru ?? wiru ?? wire ?? wiyo ?? -w- ?(?)? wiru ? wi ? wi ?? wiru ?? wiru ?? wire ?? wiyo

kami-nidan
upper-bigrade
?? -k- ?(?)? o.ku ? ki ? ki ? ku ?? kuru ?? kure ?? kiyo ?? -k- ?(?) o.kiru ? ki ? ki ?? kiru ?? kiru ?? kire ?? kiyo
?? -g- ?(?)? su.gu ? gi ? gi ? gu ?? guru ?? gure ?? giyo ?? -g- ?(?) su.giru ? gi ? gi ?? giru ?? giru ?? gire ?? giyo
?? -t- ?(?)? o.tu ? ti ? ti ? tu ?? turu ?? ture ?? tiyo ?? -t- ?(?) o.tiru ? ti ? ti ?? tiru ?? tiru ?? tire ?? tiyo
?? -d- ?(?)? ha.du ? di ? di ? du ?? duru ?? dure ?? diyo ?? -d- ?(?) ha.diru ? di ? di ?? ziru ?? ziru ?? zire ?? diyo
?? -h- ?(?)? si.hu ? hi ? hi ? hu ?? huru ?? hure ?? hiyo ?? -h- ?(?) si.hiru ? hi ? hi ?? hiru ?? hiru ?? hire ?? hiyo
?? -b- ?()? horo.bu ? bi ? bi ? bu ?? buru ?? bure ?? biyo ?? -b- ?() horo.biru ? bi ? bi ?? biru ?? biru ?? bire ?? biyo
?? -m- ?()? ura.mu ? mi ? mi ? mu ?? muru ?? mure ?? miyo ?? -m- ?() ura.miru ? mi ? mi ?? miru ?? miru ?? mire ?? miyo
?? -y- ?(?)? ku.yu ? i ? i ? yu ?? yuru ?? yure ?? iyo ?? -y- ?(?) ku.iru ? i ? i ?? iru ?? iru ?? ire ?? iyo
?? -r- ?(?)? ko.ru ? ri ? ri ? ru ?? ruru ?? rure ?? riyo ?? -r- ?(?) ko.riru ? ri ? ri ?? riru ?? riru ?? rire ?? riyo

ka-hen
k- irregular
?? -k- ?(?) ku ? ko ? ki ? ku ?? kuru ?? kure ?? koyo
ka-hen
k- irregular
?? -k- ?(?)? kuru ? ko ? ki ?? kuru ?? kuru ?? kure ?? koi

sa-hen
s- irregular
?? -s- ?(?) su ? se ? si ? su ?? suru ?? sure ?? seyo
sa-hen
s- irregular
?? -s- ?(?)? suru ? se
? si
? si ?? suru ?? suru ?? sure ?? seyo
?? siro
?()? kau.zu ? ze ? zi ? zu ?? zuru ?? zure ?? zeyo ?() kau.zuru ? ze
? zi
? zi ?? zuru ?? zuru ?? zure ?? zeyo
?? ziro
The r?maji are Nihon-shiki transliterations of the kana and do not necessarily reflect the actual sounds.

References

  1. ^ https://www.nihongo-books.com/doshi/form_and_voice/
  2. ? 2.02.1 1998, (K?jien), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Iwanami Shoten, ->ISBN
  3. ^ Adapted from the Daijiten (, page 131, volume 26) published in 1936 by Heibonsha (), which was believed to be out of copyright.

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Appendix:Japanese_verbs
 



 



 
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