Appendix:Irish Pronunciation
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Appendix:Irish Pronunciation
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Irish-language pronunciations in Wiktionary entries.

See Irish phonology for detailed discussion of the phonology of Irish.

Consonants
broad[1] slender[2] English approximations
IPA Example IPA Example
b? bain, scuab b? béal, cnáib boot; beautiful
d dorn, nead d? dearg, cuid do (but dental), though in Hiberno-English; dew
f? fós, graf
pholl
f? fíon, stuif
phríosún
fool; fuel
? gasúr, bog ? geata, carraig goose; argue
? dhorn
ghasúr
j dhearg
gheata
(no equivalent); yellow
h[3] Shasana, shean
thaisce, theanga
hata, na héisc
hand
k cáis, mac c ceist, mic coot; cute
l[4] labhair, balla l[4] leabhair, goilleadh filth; million
l?[4] fhlaith, bealach l?[4] fhleasc, goile pool; leaf
m? mór, am m? milis, im moot; mute
n[5] naoi, donna n[5] ní, bainne tenth; inch
n?[5] dona n?[5] bainis noon; new
? ngasúr ? ngeata long; angular
p? poll, stop p? príosún, truip poor; pure
rí, cuairt, barr, cairr fhréamh, tirim rule (but tapped); real (but tapped)
s? Sasana, tús, speal ? sean, cáis soon; sheet
t taisce, ceart t? tír, beirt tool (but dental), thorn in Hiberno-English; tune
w[6] bhain, dubh
mhór, léamh
vóta
v? bhéal, sibh
mhilis, nimh
veidhlín
woo; view
x cháis, taoiseach ç cheist, deich loch (Scottish English); hue (pronounced strongly)
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
a cead trap
a: meán tar (Boston); tie (Southern U.S.)
? cad cod (General American)
?: mán llama
? ceist best
? cois word (Hiberno-English)
e: mé, Gael pay
? ith, duine kit
i: mín mean
? olc, deoch cloth
o: bó, ceol roll
? dubh, fliuch good
u: tú too
? solas, milis sofa
i?[7] bia fear (non-rhotic accent)
u?[7] fuar tour (non-rhotic accent)
?i[7] saghas light
?u[7] leabhar about
Supersegmentals
IPA Explanation
' Primary stress (placed before the stressed syllable);
usually the first syllable except in Munster
? Secondary stress (usually found only in compounds)

Comparison to other phonetic transcription schemes

Materials published elsewhere use somewhat different conventions from those used at Wikipedia. For example, it is a longstanding tradition to leave velarized ("broad") consonants unmarked and mark palatalized ("slender") consonants with the prime, although this is not standard IPA usage.

This section compares the IPA system used at popflock.com resource (which is based on that used by Ailbhe Ní Chasaide in her description of Irish in the Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, ->ISBN) with the system used in some other works.

IPA Ní Chasaide (1999)[8]
(Gweedore)
Quiggin (1906)[9]
(Glenties)
Breatnach (1947)[10]
(Ring)
Ó Sé (2000)[11]
(Dingle Peninsula)
Mhac an Fhailigh (1968)[12]
(Erris)
Ó Siadhail (1988)[13]
(Cois Fhairrge)
Foclóir Póca (1993)[14]
(Lárchanúint)
a a æ, ? a a a æ:, a: a
a: æ ?: a: ?: a: ?: a:
b? b? b b b b b b
b? b? b? b? b? b? b? b?
c c k? k? k? k? k? k?
ç ç ç ç x? ç x? x?
d d d d d d d d
d? d d? d? d? d? d? d?
e: e e: e: e: e: e: e:
? ? ?, e e e e e e
? ? ? ? ?, ? ? ? ?
?i -- ?i ?i ai ?i ai ai
?u au ?u ?u ou ?u au au
f? f? f f f f f f
f? f? f? f? f? f? f? f?
? ? g g ? g g g
? ? g ? ? ? ? ?
h h h h, h? h h h h
i: i i: i: i: i: i: i:
? ? ï, i, y i i i i i
i? ia i? i? i:? i? i:? i?
j j j j j
? ? g? g? g? g? g?
k k k k k k k k
l l L l l L L l
l? l l
l l L? l? l? L? L? l?
l? l l? l? l?
m? m? m m m m m m
m? m? m? m? m? m? m? m?
n n N n n N N n
n? n n n
n n N? n? n? N? N? n?
n? n? n? n?
? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
o: o o:, ?: o: o: o: o: o:
? ? ?, o? o o o o o
p? p? p p p p p p
p? p? p? p? p? p? p? p?
r, R r r r r r
r? r? r? r? r? r?
s? s? s s s s s s
? ? ? ? ? ? s? s?
t t t t t t t
t? t t? t? t? t? t? t?
u: u u: u: u: u: u: u:
? ? U u u u u u
u? ua u? u? u:? u? u:? u?
v? v? v v? v? v? w? v?
w w w v v w w v
x x ? x x x x x

Notes

  1. ^ Irish makes contrasts between velarized ("broad") and palatalized ("slender") consonants. Velarized consonants, denoted in the IPA by a superscript ?>, are pronounced with the back of the tongue raised toward the velum, which happens to the /l/ in English pill in some accents, like RP and General American, but not in Hiberno-English. In Irish orthography, broad consonants are surrounded by the letters , , .
  2. ^ "Slender" (palatalized) consonants, denoted in the IPA by a superscript ?>, are pronounced with the body of the tongue raised toward the hard palate, in a manner similar to the articulation of the sound in yes. In Irish orthography, slender consonants are surrounded by the letters , .
  3. ^ /h/ is neither broad nor slender.
  4. ? 4.04.14.24.3 Few if any modern dialects of Irish distinguish all four types of "l" sound. Most dialects have merged /l/ and /l?/ as /l/, and some have also merged /l/ and /l?/ as /l?/. Still others have merged /l?/ and /l?/ as /l/.
  5. ? 5.05.15.25.3 Few if any modern dialects of Irish distinguish all four types of "n" sound. Most dialects have merged /n/ and /n?/ as [n], and some have also merged /n/ and /n?/ as [n?]. Still others have merged /n?/ and /n?/ as /n/. In parts of Munster, /n/ has merged with /?/ in non-initial position.
  6. ^ Also /v?/ in some positions in some dialects.
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.3 All Irish diphthongs have falling sonority; they could therefore more precisely be transliterated as i, u, ?i?, ?u?.
  8. ^ Ní Chasaide, Ailbhe (1999). "Irish". Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge University Press. pp. 111-16. ->ISBN. Retrieved 2012-01-11.
  9. ^ Quiggin, E. C. (1906). A Dialect of Donegal: Being the Speech of Meenawannia in the Parish of Glenties. Cambridge University Press.
  10. ^ Breatnach, Risteard B. (1947). The Irish of Ring, Co. Waterford. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. ->ISBN.
  11. ^ Ó Sé, Diarmuid (2000) (in Irish). Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne. Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann. ->ISBN.
  12. ^ Mhac an Fhailigh, Éamonn (1968). The Irish of Erris, Co. Mayo. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. ->ISBN.
  13. ^ Ó Siadhail, Mícheál (1988). Learning Irish: An Introductory Self-tutor. New Haven: Yale University Press. ->ISBN.
  14. ^ Foclóir póca: English-Irish/Irish-English dictionary. Dublin: An Gúm. 1993. ->ISBN.

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Appendix:Irish_pronunciation
 



 



 
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