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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents German pronunciations in Wiktionary entries.
See German phonology at popflock.com resource for a more thorough look at the sounds of German.
- ^ In free variation with [?] and also -- in Switzerland, Bavaria, and Austria -- the voiced alveolar trill [r]. Compare /?/.
- ^ /x/ is realized as a uvular fricative [?] after [a], [a:], and often [?], [?], and [a?].
- ^ The presence or absence of [?] is not phonemic. In most standard varieties of German, all initial vowels are preceded by [?]. However, this does not generally hold true for Swiss Standard German and most colloquial varieties.
- ^ [?:] is often replaced by [e:], chiefly in northern and eastern Germany.
- ^ Some references transcribe this diphthong as //.
- ^ Compare /?/.
- Duden 6: Das Aussprachewörterbuch (3rd edition, 1990, ->ISBN).