Appendix:French Swadesh List
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Appendix:French Swadesh List

This is a Swadesh list of words in French, compared with that of English.

Presentation

For further information, including the full final version of the list, read the popflock.com resource article: Swadesh list.

American linguist Morris Swadesh believed that languages changed at measurable rates and that these could be determined even for languages without written precursors. Using vocabulary lists, he sought to understand not only change over time but also the relationships of extant languages. To be able to compare languages from different cultures, he based his lists on meanings he presumed would be available in as many cultures as possible. He then used the fraction of agreeing cognates between any two related languages to compute their divergence time by some (still debated) algorithms. Starting in 1950 with 165 meanings, his list grew to 215 in 1952, which was so expansive that many languages lacked native vocabulary for some terms. Subsequently, it was reduced to 207, and reduced much further to 100 meanings in 1955. A reformulated list was published posthumously in 1971.

List

No. English French
Français
IPA
pronunciation
1 I je
2 you (singular) tu, vous (formal) ty, vu
3 he il il
4 we nous nu
5 you (plural) vous vu
6 they ils, elles il, ?l
7 this ceci s?si
8 that cela s?la
9 here ici isi
10 there la
11 who qui ki
12 what quoi kwa
13 where u
14 when quand
15 how comment k?mã
16 not ne pas n? ... p?
17 all tout tu
18 many beaucoup boku
19 some quelques k?lk
20 few peu
21 other autre ot?
22 one un oe?
23 two deux
24 three trois t?w?
25 four quatre kat?
26 five cinq sk
27 big grand ã
28 long long
29 wide large la
30 thick épais ep?
31 heavy lourd lu?
32 small petit p?ti
33 short court ku?
34 narrow étroit et?wa
35 thin mince ms
36 woman femme fam
37 man (male) homme ?m
38 man (human) homme ?m
39 child enfant f
40 wife femme, épouse fam, epuz
41 husband mari, époux ma?i, epu
42 mother mère m
43 father père p
44 animal animal animal
45 fish poisson pwasõ
46 bird oiseau wazo
47 dog chien ?j
48 louse pou pu
49 snake serpent sp
50 worm ver v
51 tree arbre a?b?
52 forest forêt f
53 stick bâton b?t
54 fruit fruit fi
55 seed graine n
56 leaf feuille foej
57 root racine ?asin
58 bark (of a tree) écorce eks
59 flower fleur floe?
60 grass herbe b
61 rope corde kd
62 skin peau po
63 meat viande vjd
64 blood sang s
65 bone os ?s
66 fat (noun) graisse s
67 egg oeuf oef
68 horn corne kn
69 tail queue
70 feather plume plym
71 hair cheveux
72 head tête t?t
73 ear oreille j
74 eye oeil oej
75 nose nez ne
76 mouth bouche bu?
77 tooth dent d
78 tongue langue l
79 fingernail ongle l
80 foot pied pje
81 leg jambe b
82 knee genou nu
83 hand main m
84 wing aile ?l
85 belly ventre vt?
86 guts entrailles, intestins tj, t?st
87 neck cou ku
88 back dos do
89 breast sein, poitrine s, pwat?in
90 heart coeur koe?
91 liver foie fw?
92 to drink boire bw
93 to eat manger me
94 to bite mordre md?
95 to suck sucer syse
96 to spit cracher k?a?e
97 to vomit vomir v?mi?
98 to blow souffler sufle
99 to breathe respirer spi?e
100 to laugh rire ?i?
101 to see voir vwa?
102 to hear entendre td?
103 to know savoir savwa?
104 to think penser pse
105 to smell sentir sti?
106 to fear craindre kd?
107 to sleep dormir dmi?
108 to live vivre viv?
109 to die mourir mu?i?
110 to kill tuer t?e
111 to fight se battre s?bat?
112 to hunt chasser ?ase
113 to hit frapper f?ape
114 to cut couper kupe
115 to split fendre fd?
116 to stab poignarder pwa?a?de
117 to scratch gratter ate
118 to dig creuser k?øze
119 to swim nager na?e
120 to fly voler v?le
121 to walk marcher mae
122 to come venir v?ni?
123 to lie (as in a bed) s'étendre (action), être étendu (state) setd?, ?t?etdy
124 to sit s'asseoir (action), être assis (state) saswa?, ?t?asi
125 to stand se lever (action), se tenir debout (state) s?l?ve, s?t?ni?d?bu
126 to turn (intransitive) tourner tu?ne
127 to fall tomber tbe
128 to give donner d?ne
129 to hold tenir t?ni?
130 to squeeze serrer se?e
131 to rub frotter fte
132 to wash laver lave
133 to wipe essuyer es?ije
134 to pull tirer ti?e
135 to push pousser puse
136 to throw jeter, lancer te, lse
137 to tie lier lje
138 to sew coudre kud?
139 to count compter kte
140 to say dire di?
141 to sing chanter te
142 to play jouer ?we
143 to float flotter fl?te
144 to flow couler kule
145 to freeze geler le
146 to swell gonfler fle
147 sun soleil s?l?j
148 moon lune lyn
149 star étoile etwal
150 water eau o
151 rain pluie pl?i
152 river rivière ?ivj
153 lake lac lak
154 sea mer m
155 salt sel s?l
156 stone pierre pj
157 sand sable sabl
158 dust poussière pusj
159 earth terre t
160 cloud nuage n?a?
161 fog brouillard b?uja?
162 sky ciel sj?l
163 wind vent v
164 snow neige n
165 ice glace ?las
166 smoke fumée fyme
167 fire feu
168 ash cendre sd?
169 to burn brûler b?yle
170 road route ?ut
171 mountain montagne mta?
172 red rouge ?u?
173 green vert v
174 yellow jaune ?on
175 white blanc bl
176 black noir nwa?
177 night nuit n?i
178 day jour ?u?
179 year an, année , ane
180 warm chaud ?o
181 cold froid f?wa
182 full plein pl
183 new nouveau nuvo
184 old vieux vjø
185 good bon b
186 bad mauvais mov?
187 rotten pourri puri
188 dirty sale sal
189 straight droit d?wa
190 round rond
191 sharp (as a knife) tranchant t
192 dull (as a knife) émoussé emuse
193 smooth lisse lis
194 wet mouillé muje
195 dry sec s?k
196 correct juste ?yst
197 near près p
198 far loin lw
199 right droite d?wat
200 left gauche ?o?
201 at à a
202 in dans d
203 with avec av?k
204 and et e
205 if si si
206 because parce que pa?s?k?
207 name nom n
  • Orthography :

When the words have various forms (verbs conjugation, gender and number agreement, declensions), the orthography is the following :

  • verbs : infinitive
  • other words : masculine, singular, nominative (subject)

For specific cases (no infinitive, feminine name, plural name for instance), the simplest form is used.

  • Pronunciation :

The pronunciation shown is the standard pronunciation in France. Depending on the speakers and the area, the actual pronunciation may differ, more or less significantly, from the shown pronunciation.

References

  • Français-Anglais/English-French Dictionary, Robert & Collins, Glasgow, Paris - ->ISBN

Further reading


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Appendix:French_Swadesh_list
 



 



 
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