-o
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-o

English

Etymology 1

Perhaps from a special use of the interjection O, oh; and/or perhaps from o ("one"), from Middle English o, oo, variant of a, on, oon, an ("one"). More at one.

Suffix

-o (plural -os or -oes)

  1. A colloquializing suffix.
  2. A type of person (colloquial).
Usage notes

-o generally does not change the meaning of the word, only making it more colloquial, often with elision (like clipping, but with a suffix), and is primarily applied to nouns, as in kiddo ("kid") or preso ("presentation"). Common words that are shortened with the -o include journalist/journo, repository/repo, distribution/distro. Can change the way a word is written, like ugly/uggo and dog/doggo. It is sometimes applied to adjectives, such as agro or rando. It may also be applied to certain given names or surnames, often with elision and sometimes from an already shortened form, to create a nickname form -- e.g., Jacko from Jack, Davo from Dave, Smitho from Smith.

Less commonly, it results in a change in meaning, primarily meaning "a person with a characteristic", and is generally applied to adjectives, resulting in a noun, as is weirdo ("weird person"). More rarely it can also be applied to a noun, as in wino ("wine-drinking alcoholic").

Derived terms
Type of person
Australianisms; some are also found in other varieties of English
See also

Etymology 2

From many Spanish or Italian words that end in o. This ending in such Spanish or Italian words generally derives from -um, the accusative singular inflectional ending for masculine and neuter nouns in Latin.

Suffix

-o

  1. (humorous) Converts certain words to faux Italian or Spanish. Can be used with Spanish el for expressions such as el stinko.
    no problemo
Derived terms

Etymology 3

Back-formation from typo.

Suffix

-o (plural -os)

  1. Added to verb stems to create a noun describing an error relating to the action described by the verb.
Derived terms

Derived terms



Esperanto

Etymology

  • From the masculine singular of the Romance languages, such as Italian (amico); perhaps also the neuter singular of Russian (? (okno))
  • Perhaps from the above (Italian quello, Russian (to))

Suffix

-o

  1. Nominal suffix. Most Esperanto nouns end in -o. (A few nouns end in -a?, and with some writers some feminine names end in -a.)
  2. -thing. (correlative object ending.)
    • kio ("what?, what")
    • tio ("that")
    • ?io ("everything")
    • io ("something")
    • nenio ("nothing")

Finnish

Etymology

From Proto-Finnic *-o and *-oi.

Suffix

-o (front vowel harmony variant )

  1. Forms result or action nouns from verbs.
    huutaa ("shout") + ‎-o -> ‎huuto ("shout")
    keittää ("boil, cook") + ‎-o -> ‎keitto ("cooking; soup")
    nähdä ("see") + ‎-o -> ‎näkö ("vision") (ability to see)
  2. Forms variants from a few nominal roots.
    hilla ("cloudberry") + ‎-o -> ‎hillo ("jam")
    kanta ("base") + ‎-o -> ‎kanto ("tree stump")
    tasa ("level") + ‎-o -> ‎taso ("plane")

Usage notes

  • Used deverbally especially with those verbs whose citation form ends with -aa or -ää. In stems with e or i, the suffix has its back vowel form, -o.

Declension

Inflection of -o (Kotus type 1/valo, no gradation)
nominative -o -ot
genitive -on -ojen
partitive -oa -oja
illative -oon -oihin
singular plural
nominative -o -ot
accusative nom. -o -ot
gen. -on
genitive -on -ojen
partitive -oa -oja
inessive -ossa -oissa
elative -osta -oista
illative -oon -oihin
adessive -olla -oilla
ablative -olta -oilta
allative -olle -oille
essive -ona -oina
translative -oksi -oiksi
instructive -oin
abessive -otta -oitta
comitative -oineen
Possessive forms of -o (type valo)
possessor singular plural
1st person -oni -omme
2nd person -osi -onne
3rd person -onsa

Derived terms


See also


French

Etymology

Corresponds to -ot, -au

Pronunciation

Suffix

-o

  1. added to a noun or an adjective after apocope, to create a familiar synonym

Derived terms


Ido

Etymology

From Esperanto -o, from Romance languages.

Suffix

-o

  1. Nominal suffix. All Ido nouns end in -o.

Italian

Etymology 1

From Latin -us

Suffix

-o (pl. -i, feminine sg. -a, feminine pl. -e)

  1. Used with a stem to form a masculine singular noun

Etymology 2

From Latin -?.

Suffix

-o

  1. Used with a stem to form the first-person singular present of regular are and ere verbs and those -ire verbs that do not take -isc-

Latin

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

See Proto-Indo-European *-h?onh?- (with nominative ? made common to all cases).

Suffix

-? m (genitive -?nis); third declension

  1. suffixed to the roots of verbs, forms masculine agent nouns.
    combib? (root: combib-) + -? -> combib?
    incub? (root: incub-) + -? -> incub?
  2. suffixed to nouns, forms cognomina and, in post-Classical Latin, nicknames and equivalent designations.
    Br?n + -? -> Br?n?
    cicer + -? -> Cicer?
Declension
Singulare tantum declension in cognomina

Third-declension noun.

Synonyms
  • (suffixed to the roots of verbs, forms masculine agent nouns): -a¹
Derived terms


References

Etymology 2

From Proto-Italic Proto-Italic *-?d, an ablative suffix, derived from Proto-Indo-EuropeanProto-Indo-European *-éad.

Suffix

-? (comparative -ius, superlative -issim?)

  1. forms adverbs
    pr?mus + -? -> pr?m?
    t?tus + -? -> t?t?
Derived terms


References

Etymology 3

From Proto-Italic *- or *-a, from the following sources:

Alternative forms

Suffix

-? (present infinitive -?re, perfect active -?v?, supine -?tum); first conjugation

  1. suffixed to nouns -- originally a-stem nouns, but later nouns with other stems -- forms regular first-conjugation verbs
    c?ra + -? -> c?r?
    d?num + -? -> d?n?
    laus (stem: laud-) + -? -> laud?
    multa + -? -> mult?
  2. suffixed to third-conjugation verbs in composition, forms regular first-conjugation verbs
    com- + pell? (pres. act. inf.: pellere) + -? -> compell? (pres. act. inf.: compell?re)
    pr?- + fl?g? (pres. act. inf.: fl?gere) + -? -> pr?fl?g? (pres. act. inf.: pr?fl?g?re)
Conjugation
   Conjugation of -? (first conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -? -?s -at -?mus -?tis -ant
imperfect -?bam -?b?s -?bat -?b?mus -?b?tis -?bant
future -?b? -?bis -?bit -?bimus -?bitis -?bunt
perfect -?v? -?vist? -?vit -?vimus -?vistis -?v?runt, -?v?re
pluperfect -?veram -?ver?s -?verat -?ver?mus -?ver?tis -?verant
future perfect -?ver? -?veris -?verit -?verimus -?veritis -?verint
passive present -or -?ris, -?re -?tur -?mur -?min? -antur
imperfect -?bar -?b?ris, -?b?re -?b?tur -?b?mur -?b?min? -?bantur
future -?bor -?beris, -?bere -?bitur -?bimur -?bimin? -?buntur
perfect -?tus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect -?tus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect -?tus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -em -?s -et -?mus -?tis -ent
imperfect -?rem -?r?s -?ret -?r?mus -?r?tis -?rent
perfect -?verim -?ver?s -?verit -?ver?mus -?ver?tis -?verint
pluperfect -?vissem -?viss?s -?visset -?viss?mus -?viss?tis -?vissent
passive present -er -?ris, -?re -?tur -?mur -?min? -entur
imperfect -?rer -?r?ris, -?r?re -?r?tur -?r?mur -?r?min? -?rentur
perfect -?tus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect -?tus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -? -?te
future -?t? -?t? -?t?te -ant?
passive present -?re -?min?
future -?tor -?tor -antor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives -?re -?visse -?t?rum esse -?r? -?tum esse -?tum ?r?
participles -?ns -?t?rus -?tus -andus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
-and? -and? -andum -and? -?tum -?t?
Derived terms


References

Etymology 4

Regularly declined forms of -us.

Suffix

-?

  1. dative masculine singular of -us
  2. dative neuter singular of -us
  3. ablative masculine singular of -us
  4. ablative neuter singular of -us

See also


Lithuanian

Etymology 1

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *-?; compare Latvian -a, Proto-Slavic *-a ("id"). From the Proto-Indo-European thematic masculine ablative ending *-?d, with regular Balto-Slavic loss of final d. Compare Sanskrit - (-?t), Latin -? and Ancient Greek -? (óp-?, "whence"). In Balto-Slavic, the genitive merged with the ablative. The original genitive was retained, however, in West Baltic; compare Old Prussian -as, presumably from Proto-Indo-European *-os; compare Hittite ? (-as).

Suffix

  1. Used to form genitive singulars of masculine a-stem nouns.
  2. Used to form genitive singulars of masculine a-stem adjectives.

Etymology 2

Suffix

-o

  1. Used to form third person present tense forms in third declension verbs.
  2. Used to form third person past tense forms in first declension verbs.

Etymology 3

Suffix

  1. An illative suffix.
    namas + ‎-o -> ‎namo
Synonyms

Lower Sorbian

Suffix

-o

  1. -ly (used to turn an adjective into an adverb of manner)

Synonyms

Derived terms



Norwegian Nynorsk

Suffix

-o

  1. Used to make plural indefinite and definite forms for some neuter nouns
  2. (non-standard since 1917) Used to make singular definite form for some weak feminine nouns
  3. (archaic)(nonstandard) Used to mark plural form for strong verbs in past tense




Old Dutch

Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *-ô.

Suffix

-o

  1. Forms adverbs from adjectives.

Derived terms

Category Old Dutch words suffixed with -o not found


Descendants

  • Middle Dutch: -e

Old High German

Etymology 1

From Proto-Germanic *-ô.

Suffix

-o

  1. Forms adverbs from adjectives.
Descendants
  • Middle High German: -e

Etymology 2

From Proto-Germanic *-ô. Cognate to Old English -a, in ?ta ("eater"), Gothic -? (-a), in ? (nuta, "fisher"). In some cases, the root appears in the zero-grade as in boto (from biotan).

Suffix

-o m

  1. used to form masculine agents from verbs
    geban ("to give") + ‎-o -> ‎gëbo ("giver")
    sprehhan ("to speak") + ‎-o -> ‎sprëhho ("speaker")
    biotan ("to offer, send, command") + ‎-o -> ‎boto ("messenger")
    ziohan ("to pull, lead") + ‎-o -> ‎herizogo ("army leader")
    sag?n ("to say") + ‎-o -> ‎fora-sago ("prophet")
Declension

Most nouns with this suffix follow the n-declension, like hano ("cock"), namo ("name"), gomo ("man").

Descendants
  • Middle High German: -e
    • German: -e

In Middle High German, the suffix is replaced by -er (whence German -er), as in Middle High German gëber instead of Old High German gëbo. Only a few German words still have a final -e that results from Old High German -o.


Old Saxon

Etymology 1

From Proto-Germanic *-ô.

Suffix

-o

  1. Forms adverbs from adjectives.

Etymology 2

From Proto-Germanic *-ô. Cognate to Old English -a, in ?ta ("eater"), Gothic -? (-a), in ? (nuta, "fisher").

Suffix

-o m

  1. used to form masculine agents from verbs and nouns
    gevan ("to give") + ‎-o -> ‎gevo ("giver")
    beddi ("bed") + ‎-o -> ‎gibeddio ("bedfellow")
Descendants
  • Middle Low German: -e

Portuguese

Etymology 1

From Old Portuguese -o, from Latin -um.

Suffix

-o

  1. forms masculine singular nouns and adjectives

Etymology 2

From Old Portuguese -o, from Latin -?.

Suffix

-o

  1. forms the first-person singular present indicative of verbs

Spanish

Etymology

From Latin -?.

Suffix

-o

  1. suffix indicating the first-person singular present indicative of verbs

Swedish

Pronunciation

  • when combined the stress is always on the first syllable

Suffix

-o

  1. (colloquial) Suffix that gives a familiar, and to some extent a diminutive nuance, when combined with an adjective to create a noun referring to a person with a certain property
    full ("drunk") + ‎-o -> ‎fyllo ("drunkard")
    fet ("fat") + ‎-o -> ‎fetto ("a fatty")
    snygg ("handsome") + ‎-o -> ‎snyggo ("handsome (noun)")
    puckad ("stupid") + ‎-o -> ‎pucko ("a stupid person")
    lycklig ("lucky, fortunate") + ‎-o -> ‎lyllo ("a fortunate person")

Volapük

Suffix

-o

  1. adverb ending
  2. -wise (in the matter of; with regard to)

Derived terms



Welsh

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

Suffix

-o

  1. used to form pet names
    Dai + ‎-o -> ‎Deio
    Gwen + ‎-o -> ‎Gwenno
    Iorwerth + ‎-o -> ‎Iolo

Etymology 2

Suffix

-o

  1. (literary) verb suffix for the third-person singular present subjunctive

Etymology 3

Suffix

-o

  1. Forms verbnouns from verb stems.
    Synonyms: -i, -u

Usage notes

This suffix is mostly used for verbs where the stem ends in the consonant i (though for some such verbs, such as cynnig, the verbnoun is given by dropping the i from the stem) or the vowel in the last syllable is i, u, eu, or wy.[1]

Related terms

  • -io (Forms verbnouns from verbs and other parts of speech)

Derived terms


References

  1. ^ J. Morris Jones, A Welsh Grammar, Historical and Comparative (Oxford 1913), § 202 iv.

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-o
 



 



 
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