From Middle English -ly, -li, -lik, -lich, from Old English -l?c, -l, from Proto-Germanic *-l?kaz ("having the body or form of"), from *l?k? ("body") (whence lich). In form, probably influenced by Old Norse -ligr ("-ly"). Cognate with Dutch -lijk, German -lich and Swedish -lig. Doublet of -like.
- Used to form adjectives from nouns, the adjectives having the sense of "behaving like, or having a nature typical of what is denoted by the noun".
- manly, friendly
- Used to form adjectives from nouns, the adjectives having the sense of "appearing like, resembling, or having the likeness of what is denoted by the noun".
- bloomly, priestly
- Used to form adjectives from nouns specifying time intervals, the adjectives having the sense of "occurring at such intervals".
- monthly, daily
forming adjectives from nouns, in the sense "similar to, like, characteristic of"
- Icelandic: -legur (is)
- Ido: -atra
- Persian: (-meâbâne)
- Portuguese: -oso (pt), -ento (pt), -mente (pt)
- Russian: -? (-skij) (adjective, phonetic changes and additions occur), - (-ski) (adverb)
- Serbo-Croatian: -n?
- Spanish: -oso (es), -mente (es) n
- Swedish: -aktig (sv), -artad (sv), -lig (sv), -isk (sv)
- Turkish: -ca (tr), -ça (tr), -ce (tr), -çe (tr), -c?l, -ç?l, -cil, -çil
- Welsh: -us (cy)
forming adjectives from nouns, in the sense "occurring at such intervals"
From Middle English -ly, -li, -liche, from Old English -le.
- Used to form adverbs from adjectives.
In prescriptive usage, derived adverbs in -ly are often preferred to those which are identical in form to the base adjective (e.g., badly instead of bad), despite the fact that the latter have been in continuous use since the earliest stages of the language and represent the norm in languages closely related to English, such as Dutch and German. This is the cause of hypercorrections such as I feel badly (where feel actually represents a copular verb, which traditionally requires an adjectival complement rather than an adverb).
Various sound changes and spelling changes occur for -ly:
- If an adjective ends with a consonant followed by y, it changes into i before adding the suffix (e.g. ready > readily, easy > easily).
- If an adjective ends with ll, one l drops out to avoid a triple letter (e.g. full > fully, shrill > shrilly).
- If an adjective ends with a syllabic /l?/ (spelled -le after a consonant), euphony causes the -le to drop out. Examples include -ably and -ibly, but also noble > nobly, ample > amply, and idle > idly, among others.
- Adjectives ending in -ic generally take -ally (public > publicly being an exception).
used to form adverbs from adjectives
- Aragonese: -mén
- Armenian: - (-bar), -? (-oren)
- Basque: -eki
- Catalan: -ment (ca)
- Mandarin: (similar function, but used in different ways) ? (zh) (de)
- Danish: -t (or no suffix at all)
- Dutch: (the adverb is usually the same as the adjective: no change in form), -erwijs (nl), -lijk (nl)
- Esperanto: -e (eo)
- Estonian: -lt
- Faroese: -liga
- Finnish: -sti (fi)
- French: -ment (fr)
- Galician: -mente (gl)
- Georgian: -? (-d)
- German: (normal adverbs are the same in form as the respective adjectives); -erweise (forms adverbs that modify phrases or sentences), -lich (de)
- Greek: -? (el) (-a), - (el) (-os) (each replacing the final syllable of the adjective)
- Hebrew: ?- (he) (be-/bi-) (adverbs are formed from nouns, rather than adjectives)
- Hungarian: -an (hu)/-en (hu), -lag/-leg, -l/-ul/-ül
- Icelandic: -lega
- Ido: -e
- Igbo: na
- Italian: -mente (it)
- Japanese: ...? (ja) (-ku) (?-adjectives drop ?, add ?), ...? (ja) (-ni) (?-adjectives drop ?, add ?)
- Latin: -?, -iter
- Latvian: -i
- Lithuanian: -i
- Macedonian: -? (-o)
- Mongolian: - (-han)
- Navajo: -go
- Neapolitan: -mente
- Norman: -ment
- Norwegian Bokmål: (normal adverbs are the same in form as the respective adjectives)
- Norwegian Nynorsk: (normal adverbs are the same in form as the respective adjectives)
- Occitan: -ment (oc)
- Persian: ? (-ane); ? (-iha)
- Polish: -o (pl)
- Portuguese: -mente (pt)
- Russian: -? (ru) (-o), -? (ru) (-e), -...- (po-...-ski) (forming adverbs from -? adjectives), - (-ski)
- Sanskrit: please add this translation if you can
- Spanish: -mente (es)
- Swedish: -t (sv)
- Turkish: bir ?ekilde
- Walloon: -mint (wa)
-ly (comparative -lyere, superlative -lyest)
- Alternative form of -liche
- "-l?, suf.(1)" in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007, retrieved 7 April 2018.
- "-l?, suf.(2)" in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007, retrieved 7 April 2018.