-en
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-en

English

Pronunciation

  • (usually) IPA(key): /?n/
  • (after /t/, /d/ also) IPA(key): /n?/
  • In many accents, -en routinely gives up its vowel syllable when given additional suffixes. For example, fatten /'fæt.n?/ + -ing /-/ can be /'fæt.n?./ or /'fæt.n/.
    • Even in many accents where this habitual syllable deletion is less usual, the syllable loss may still predominate for certain inflections that have become common words in their own right, such as gardener /:(?)d.n?(?)/.
    • Syllable loss may be habitually prevented to avoid merging with more deeply entrenched inflections, such as for keeping the generic inflection lightening /'la?t.n?./ from being pronounced identically to the established term lightning /'la?t.n/ (notice the e is no longer written), even if they both independently derived from a combination of lighten + -ing.
      • But syllable loss may resume with inflections that are not in danger of merging with an established word, such as enlightening, which can be pronounced /?n'la?t.n?./ or /?n'la?t.n/ because enlightning is not a common word outside of slang.

Etymology 1

From Middle English -n, -en, past participle ending of strong verbs (compare Middle English take(n), took, taken ("take, took, taken")), from Old Norse -inn, past participle ending of strong verbs (compare Old Norse taka, tók, tekinn ("take, took, taken")). From Proto-Norse [script needed] (*-ina-), from Proto-Germanic *-inaz, a variant of *-anaz. Replaced the native past participle ending of strong verbs (from Old English -en) in some words, which had weakened to -e or disappeared (compare Southern Middle English do(n), dud(e), ydo ("do, did, done")), but not in others (compare cume(n), com, ycume ("come, came, come")), from Proto-Germanic *-anaz, from Proto-Indo-European *-nós.

Suffix

-en

  1. Denotes the past participle form when attached to a verb.
    As in take, taken; forgive, forgiven; prove, proven
  2. Denotes a quasi-past participle or participle-like adjective when attached to a noun or verb.
    As in forken ("forked"); paven ("paved"); bare-footen ("bare-footed"), enslaven ("enslaved")

Usage notes

Some linguistic writing on English, such as The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar, uses -en as the name of an abstract morpheme which forms the past participle of all English verbs, even those which do not actually contain the suffix -en, such as cook + -en -> cooked.

Derived terms
past participle

Etymology 2

From Middle English -en, from Old English -an, from Proto-Germanic *-an-, *-in-, from Proto-Indo-European *-én-.

From Middle English -n (in words ending in a vowel: flee: fleen "flea: fleas") and -en. Noun plural marker (predominantly in Southern dialects of Middle English), from Old English nominative-accusative plural ending of weak nouns (n-stem declension); compare ‎nama m ("name") + ‎-en -> ‎naman ("names"); ‎hl?fde f ("lady") + ‎-en -> ‎hl?fdan ("ladies"); ‎?are n ("ear") + ‎-en -> ‎?aran ("ears"). Assisted by Middle English dative plural ending -n, -en from late O.E. -un, -on, weakened form of earlier -um. Akin to Old High German n-stem (compare namo: namon "name: names"), Latin n-stem (compare homo: homin-)

Suffix

-en

  1. Can be used to denote the plural form of a small number of English words, the majority of whose etymology goes back to the n-stem (i.e. weak noun) declension of Germanic languages.
    Examples: aurochs, aurochsen[1]; bee, been; brother, brethren[1]; cheese, cheesen; child, children[1]; cow, kine; knee, kneen; ey, eyren; eye, eyen; hose, hosen; house, housen; ox, oxen[1]; pease, peasen; shoe, shoon; sister, sistren; tree, treen
  2. Used to form the plural of some nouns of Dutch or German origin.
    klompen, lagerstätten, lederhosen
  3. (dialectal or nonstandard, rare) Used to form the plural of nouns
    • 1890, John Drummond Robertson, ?lord Henry Haughton Reynolds Moreton, A Glossary of Dialect & Archaic Words Used in the County of Gloucester:
      Moder, gyn, will not y washen' the dishen'. i. Mother, Jone, will not wash the dishes.
    • 2007, James Patrick Kelly, ?John Kessel, Rewired: The Post-Cyberpunk Anthology:
      There was one other user logged in, "scaredy," and he checked the process monitor and saw that scaredy had spawned all the hundreds of processes that were probing him and plenty of other boxen.
    • 2012, Jenny Lawson, Let's Pretend This Never Happened:
      Victor and I are having a huge argument about whether or not to feed the foxen. Victor says yes, because they're adorable and-- according to the neighbors--are quite tame. I say no, because we have a fat little pug who likes to frolic outside occasionally and I don't want to see him eaten. I thought we were on the same page about the fox, but then Victor went and threw an apple at it. And I was all, "What the fuck? We don't feed the foxen," and he said, "I was throwing the apple at it to chase it away," but Victor is a tremendous liar, and he didn't go to pick up the apple, probably because he knows that foxen love apple cider.
    • 2015, David Greygoose, Brunt Boggart:
      For now the boys grew whiskers and hung fox pelts from their shoulders and the girlen all wore scarlet skirts and braided ribbons through their hair.

Usage notes

Seldom productive, outside of occasional humorous use, particularly in computer hacker subculture. Notable examples are boxen, Unixen, VAXen.

Derived terms
plural

Etymology 3

From Middle English -(e)nen, -(e)nien, from Old English -nian, from Proto-Germanic *-in?n?. Cognate with Danish -ne, Swedish -na, Icelandic -na.

Suffix

-en

  1. When attached to certain adjectives, it forms a transitive verb whose meaning is, to make (adjective). Usually, the verb is ergative, sometimes not. The same construction could also be done to certain (fewer) nouns, as, strengthen, in which case the verb means roughly, to give (noun) to, or to become like (noun).
Usage notes
  • Although -en is a very common verb ending, it is not currently very productive in forming new words, being mostly restricted to monosyllabic bases which end in an obstruent; new formations tend to be nonstandard or humorous.
Derived terms


Translations

Etymology 4

From Middle English -en, from Old English -en, from Proto-Germanic *-?naz; suffix meaning "made of, consisting of, having the qualities of" applied to nouns to form adjectives. Akin to Dutch -en, German -en, Icelandic -inn, Latin -?nus. See -ine.

Alternative forms

Suffix

-en

  1. Suffix meaning "pertaining to", "having the qualities of", "resembling", "like".
    elf + ‎-en -> ‎elfin
    wolf + ‎-en -> ‎wolven
    peach + ‎-en -> ‎peachen
    goat + ‎-en -> ‎goaten
  2. When attached to certain nouns that are the names of a material, it forms an adjective whose meaning is, made of (noun). This is a formative pattern with many obsolescent remnants. Fowler (1926) pointed out the tendency for the -en forms to be restricted to metaphorical and secondary senses. Changes in the form of the root noun, and the dropping of the "e" in the suffix occur. There are also orphan formations whose root has been lost to the current language.
    Current examples: wood, wooden; gold, golden; brass, brazen; ash, ashen; wheat, wheaten
    Rare or archaic examples: bronze, bronzen; silver, silvern; copper, coppern; paper, papern; brick, bricken; board, boarden
    Orphan examples: linen (flax was once called lin).
Derived terms


Etymology 5

From Middle English -en, from Old English -en, from the neuter form of -en4.

Suffix

-en

  1. Used to form the diminutives of certain nouns.
    chicken
    maiden
    kitten
Derived terms


See also

Etymology 6

From Middle English -en, a blending of Old English infinitives -an and -n, from Proto-Germanic *-an?; and Old English -on and -en, the indicative and subjunctive past tense plural endings of verbs.

Suffix

-en

  1. (obsolete) Used to form the infinitive of verbs.
  2. (obsolete) Used to form the plural present tense of verbs.
Usage notes
  • Having begun to fade by the 15th century, it was used in Early Modern English primarily to show archaic or rustic speech.
  • The weakening and loss of the marker caused some verbs to blend with verbs marked by Etymology 3; for example, Middle English learen ("to teach") blended with learnen ("to learn"), which resulted in learn having a (dialectal) double meaning.

References

  1. ? 1.01.11.21.3 The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language by David Crystal (1995, Cambridge University Press, ->ISBN), page 200

Anagrams


Basque

Etymology

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Suffix

-en

  1. used to form the superlative of adjectives
    handi ("big") + ‎-en -> ‎handien ("biggest")
    zahar ("old") + ‎-en -> ‎zaharren ("oldest")

Chuukese

Etymology

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Suffix

-en

  1. of

Synonyms


Danish

Etymology

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Suffix

-en

  1. Forms the singular definite form of nouns of the common gender.
  2. Forms gerunds from verbs, these nouns being indeclinable and of the common gender.
  3. (organic chemistry) Identifies an alkene, these being of either the common or the neuter gender; -ene.
  4. (obsolete) Forms adverbs from adjectives, now displaced by -t.
    hjerteligen, antageligen

Usage notes

  • If the noun from which the singular definite is formed already ends in an unstressed schwa, this is not doubled: kage, kagen (but if the -e is stressed, a schwa is appended normally: ske, skeen; allé, alléen). If it ends with a consonant and the last vowel is short, the last consonant is usually doubled in native and nativized words, if it is one of {k, l, m, n, p, s, t}: hat, hatten. This is however not a reliable rule.

Derived terms



Dutch

Etymology 1

Primarily from weak class 2, from Middle Dutch -en, from Old Dutch -on, from Proto-Germanic *-?n?, from Proto-Indo-European *-eh?yéti (denominative) and *-h?ti (factitive).

Suffix

-en

  1. Forms verbs from nouns and adjectives. The stem of the word itself does not change.
Inflection

For verb stems ending in a voiced consonant:

For verb stems ending in a voiceless consonant:

Derived terms


Etymology 2

From Middle Dutch -ijn, -in, -en, from Old Dutch *-?n, from Proto-Germanic *-?naz.

Suffix

-en

  1. Forms adjectives that indicate the substance from which something is made.
Inflection
Inflection of -en
uninflected -en
inflected -en
comparative
positive
predicative/adverbial
indefinite m./f. sing. -en
n. sing. -en
plural -en
definite -en
partitive
Derived terms


Etymology 3

From Middle Dutch -en, a merger of various Old Dutch infinitive suffixes:

Suffix

-en

  1. Ending of the infinitive form of verbs.

Etymology 4

From Middle Dutch -en, from Old Dutch -an, from Proto-Germanic *-anaz, from Proto-Indo-European *-nós.

Suffix

-en

  1. The ending of the past participle of strong verbs. This can also function as an adjective.
Inflection
Inflection of -en
uninflected -en
inflected -en
comparative -ener
positive comparative superlative
predicative/adverbial -en -ener het -enst
het -enste
indefinite m./f. sing. -en -ener -enste
n. sing. -en -ener -enste
plural -en -ener -enste
definite -en -ener -enste
partitive -ens -eners

Etymology 5

From various case forms of the Germanic weak nominal inflection.

Suffix

-en

  1. The ending of the plural form of many nouns.
  2. Taken by adjectives used as nouns, to form the plural form of such nouns.
    groot + ‎-en -> ‎de groten ("the great ones")
  3. (archaic, not productive) The ending of a number of weak case endings of the adjective or the article.
    een + ‎-en -> ‎ten enen male
  4. (archaic, not productive) The ending of the genitive case of certain nouns.
    de hertog + ‎-en -> ‎des hertogen, a genitive preserved in 's-Hertogenbosch

Etymology 6

From various first- and third-person plural forms of Germanic verbs.

Suffix

-en

  1. The ending of the plural forms of verbs, in both present and past tense.

Etymology 7

From Old Dutch -ana, from Proto-Germanic *-an?.

Suffix

-en

  1. A suffix present on certain adverbs.
    voor + ‎-en -> ‎van voren ("from the front")

Emilian

Pronunciation

Pronoun

-en (adverbial)

  1. (enclitic, after a consonant) Alternative form of in
    M?njen un p?k! - Eat some of it! (imperative, singular)

Finnish

Suffix

-en

  1. Suffix variant for the illative singular, see -Vn.
  2. Suffix for the genitive plural. Usually preceded by the plural marker -i- or -j-, but may also have a consonant separator -d- after the plural marker if the words would otherwise have 3 consecutive vowels.
  3. (personal) Forms the impersonal potential present forms of verbs, appended to the infinitive, followed by the potential mood marker -ne-.
    Verbs with a consonant stem (ending in -hda/-hdä, -lla/-llä, -nna/-nnä, -rra/-rrä, -sta/-stä, -ta/-tä in the citation form) are followed by -ta-, the mood marker -ne- and -en.
    juosta, consonant stem juos- + -ta- + -ne- + -en -> juostaneen
    mennä, consonant stem men- + -tä- + -ne- + -en -> mentäneen
    nähdä, consonant stem näh- + -tä- + -ne- + -en -> nähtäneen
    palella, consonant stem palel- + -ta- + -ne- + -en -> paleltaneen
    haluta, consonant stem halut- + -ta- + -ne- + -en -> haluttaneen
    In verbs ending in -ea/-eä, -oa/-öä, -ua/-yä, the verb stem in the weak grade is followed by -tta-/-ttä, the mood marker -ne- and then by this.
    laskea, stem laske- + -tta- + -ne- + -en -> laskettaneen
    iskeä, stem iske- + -ttä- + -ne- + -en -> iskettäneen
    sanoa, stem sano- + -tta- + -ne- + -en -> sanottaneen
    kertoa, stem ker- + -to- -> -ro- + -tta + -en -> kerrottaneen
    huolestua, stem huolestu- + -tta- + -ne- + -en -> huolestuttaneen
    saapua, stem saa- + -pu- -> -vu- + -tta- + -ne- + -en -> saavuttaneen
    säilöä, stem säilö- + -ttä- + -ne- + -en -> säilöttäneen
    säilyä, stem säily- + -ttä- + -ne- + -en -> säilyttäneen
    häip, stem häi- + -py- -> -vy- + -ttä- + -ne- + -en -> häivyttäneen
    In verbs ending in -aa/-ää or -ea/-eä, the beginning stem is followed by -etta-, the mood marker -ne- and then by this — consonant gradation occurs.
    paistaa, stem paist- + -etta- + -ne- + -en -> paistettaneen
    laittaa, stem lait- (another t disappears) + -etta- + -ne- + -en -> laitettaneen
    vaihtaa, stem vaih- + -t- -> -d- + -etta- + -en- -> vaihdettaneen
  4. (possessive) A variant for the third-person possessive suffixes -nsa and -nsä, see the usage notes below.

Usage notes

  • (third-person possessive suffix variant) When the third-person possessive suffix -nsa/-nsä is appended to nouns that are in singular and plural allative and translative and plural comitative, the S and A/Ä are very often omitted from the suffix and the last E of the case suffix preceding the remaining N is doubled — resulting in this -en. In standard Finnish, both the "full" form and the shortened form are acceptable. This same omission takes very often place also in the long first infinitives, used in a shortened sentence expressing "(in order) to do" (see the meanings of -nsa and -nsä):
Singular
(allat.) kirjallensa -> kirjalleen
(trans.) kirjaksensa -> kirjakseen
Plural
(allat.) kirjoillensa -> kirjoilleen
(trans.) kirjoiksensa -> kirjoikseen
(comit.) kirjoinensa -> kirjoineen

Anagrams


German

Etymology 1

From Middle High German -en, a merger of various terminations in Old High German reflecting different conjugational patterns, namely -an, -?n, -en (-ien), and -nen, from Proto-Germanic *-an?, *-?n?, *-jan?, *-?n?, and *-nan?.

Alternative forms

  • -n (after -er, -el; in Herrn, sein, tun, and some dated/poetic/colloquial forms such as gehn, stehn)
  • -'n (alternatively in the dated/poetic/colloquial forms)

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /?n/
    • IPA(key): [?n] (possible in all contexts, but rare in most regions)
    • IPA(key): [m?] (after labial stops and sometimes labial nasals and fricatives)
    • IPA(key): [] (after velar stops and sometimes velar nasals and fricatives)
    • IPA(key): [l?n] (with -l- after a full vowel)
    • IPA(key): [?n] (with -r- after a full vowel)
    • IPA(key): [n?] (otherwise)

Suffix

-en

  1. A suffix of all verbs in their infinitive form.
    Accordingly, the suffix is also applied to verbs borrowed from other languages.
    Foul + ‎-en -> ‎foulen ("to foul")
    managen - to manage
  2. A suffix indicating the 1st and 3rd person plural forms (except the present indicative sind of sein).
    wir kommen - we arrive
    sie kommen - they arrive
  3. A suffix appended to strong verb stems to form the past participle, usually together with ge-.
    fallen + ge- and ?-en -> ?gefallen

Etymology 2

From Middle High German -en, a merger of various terminations in Old High German reflecting different declensional patterns.

Alternative forms

  • -n (after -er, -el in nouns, but not usually in adjectives)

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /?n/ (variants as in etymology 1)

Suffix

-en

  1. A suffix appended to some nouns in all of their plural forms. These nouns are so-called "weak" or "mixed" nouns; they are most often feminine, often masculine, rarely neuter.
  2. A suffix appended to weak masculine nouns in all oblique cases of the singular, and to some mixed nouns in the singular dative and accusative
  3. A suffix appended to most other nouns, the so-called "strong" nouns, in their plural dative
  4. A suffix (in fact, the most common declensional ending) which is appended to determiners, adjectives, and participles, for multiple forms of all grammatical cases, both singular and plural.
See also

Etymology 3

From Middle High German -en, from Old High German -?n, from Proto-Germanic *-?naz.

Alternative forms

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /?n/ (variants as in etymology 1)

Suffix

-en

  1. A suffix which is used to create adjectives that most often refer to materials
    Gold ("gold", noun) + ‎-en -> ‎golden ("gold, golden", adjective)

Etymology 4

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Pronunciation

Suffix

-en

  1. (chemistry) -ene (alkene suffix)

Derived terms

Category German verbs suffixed with -en not found



Hungarian

Etymology

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Pronunciation

Suffix

-en

  1. (adverbial suffix) Added to an adjective or numeral to create an adverb.
    szép ("beautiful") -> szépen ("beautifully")
    hét ("seven") -> Heten mentünk moziba. - Seven of us went to the cinema.
    kett? ("two") -> Ketten vannak a szobában. - There are two people in the room.
  2. (case suffix) on. Used to form the superessive case.
    szék ("chair") -> széken ("on the chair")
  3. (verb suffix) Added to a stem -- often an onomatopoeia -- to form a verb expressing an instantaneous action.
    reccsen ("to crackle, to make one cracking sound")
    retten ("to recoil, to get afraid instantly")
  4. (verb suffix, chiefly archaic or dialectal) Indefinite third-person singular suffix (currently only in the imperative mood as part of -jen, formerly also occurring in the indicative).
    nincsen ("he/she/it isn't, there is none of it")
    legyen ("he/she/it should be, there should be")
    megyen ("he/she/it is going") (in the standard language: megy)

Usage notes

  • (adverbial suffix): See under -n
  • (case suffix) Harmonic variants:
    -n is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
    -on is added to back vowel words ending in a consonant
    -en is added to unrounded front vowel words ending in a consonant
    -ön is added to rounded front vowel words ending in a consonant
  • (instantaneous verb suffix): See under -an

Derived terms


See also


Japanese

Romanization

-en

  1. R?maji transcription of

Low German

Etymology 1

From Middle Low German -inge, from Old Saxon -unga, from Proto-Germanic *-ing?, *-ung?. Cognate with Dutch -ing, Swedish -ning, German -ung, English -ing.

Pronunciation

Suffix

-en f

  1. forms nouns from verbs (called gerunds) or other nouns, usually describing either an event in which an action is carried out, or the result of that action; the equivalent of English -ing
    bedüden ("to mean") + ‎-en -> ‎de Bedüden ("the meaning")
    Huus ("house") + ‎-en -> ‎de Hüsen ("the dwelling")

Derived terms

Etymology 2

From Middle Low German -en, a blending of Old Saxon infinitives -an, -ian and -on, from Proto-Germanic *-an?.

Suffix

-en

  1. Used to form the infinitive of verbs.

Luxembourgish

Etymology

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Pronunciation

Suffix

-en

  1. Used for some nouns to form plural forms.
  2. Used to show the infinitive form of verbs.
  3. A suffix which is used to create adjectives that refer to materials

Usage notes

The suffix -en, like any ending that involves either -n or -nn, is subject to the Eifeler Regel. For example, Versioune weisen.


Middle Dutch

Etymology 1

A merger of various infinitive suffixes:

Suffix

-en

  1. The ending of the infinitive form of verbs, used as a suffix to form new verbs as well.
Descendants

Etymology 2

From the Old Dutch [Term?] strong past participle ending -an, from Proto-Germanic *-anaz.

Suffix

-en

  1. The ending of the past participle of strong verbs.
Descendants

Etymology 3

From various first and third-person plural forms of Germanic verbs.

Suffix

-en

  1. The ending of the first- and third-person plural forms of verbs.
Descendants

Etymology 4

From Old Dutch *-?n, from Proto-Germanic *-?naz.

Suffix

-en

  1. Alternative form of -in

Middle English

Alternative forms

Etymology 1

From Old Norse -inn, past participle ending of strong verbs, from Proto-Norse [script needed] (*-?na-), from Proto-Germanic *-?naz. Replaced the native past participle ending of strong verbs (from Old English -en) in some words, which had weakened to -e or disappeared.

Suffix

-en

  1. Denotes the past participle form when attached to a strong verb.
Usage notes

In many cases y- and -en are added together as a circumfix.

The full -en was better-preserved in the northern dialects, whereas in many cases the southern dialects shortened the affix to -n.

Descendants

References

Alternative forms

Etymology 2

From Old English -an.

Suffix

-en

  1. Denotes the infinitive when attached to verbs.

References

Alternative forms

Etymology 3

From Old English -on, -en.

Suffix

-en

  1. Denotes the past indicative plural form of verbs.
  2. Denotes the present and past subjunctive plural form of verbs.
  3. Denotes the present indicative plural form of certain verbs.
Usage notes

This suffix was increasingly reduced to -e.

The use of this suffix as present indicative plural was common in the Midland area, replacing -eth, -eþ.

Descendants

References

Alternative forms

Etymology 4

From Old English -an, a plural and oblique case marker.

Suffix

-en

  1. Denotes the plural form of certain nouns.
  2. Denotes the oblique cases of certain nouns.
  3. Denotes the oblique cases and plural forms of weak adjectives.
Usage notes

This suffix as a plural marker is most heavily used in early Middle English, and is generally favoured in southern dialects, whereas northern dialects largely supplanted it with -es early.

Descendants

References

Etymology 5

From Old English -um.

Suffix

-en

  1. Denotes the dative singular and plural of strong adjectives.

References

Alternative forms

Etymology 6

From Old English -en ("characteristic of; made of").

Suffix

-en

  1. Attached to a noun to form an adjective describing something as characteristic of, like, or pertaining to that noun.
  2. Attached to a noun that denotes a material to form an adjective describing something as made of that material.
Usage notes

The affixion of -en is sometimes accompanied by a mutation in the root vowel.

Derived terms
Adjectives formed with -en denoting materials
Descendants

References

Etymology 7

From Old English -en.

Suffix

-en

  1. Denotes a diminutive form of a noun.
Descendants

Etymology 8

From Old English -en.

Suffix

-en

  1. Denotes a female form of a small, fixed number of nouns.
Derived terms
Female nouns formed with -en

References

Etymology 9

From Old English -nian, from Proto-Germanic *-in?n?.

Suffix

-en

  1. Alternative form of -enen.

Old English

Etymology 1

From Proto-Germanic *-?n?

Suffix

-en n

  1. (causes i-mutation) used to create diminutive neuter nouns
    mæ?þ ("girl, woman") + ‎-en -> ‎mæ?den ("little girl")
    cocc ("cock, fowl") + ‎-en -> ‎cycen, cicen ("chick")
    broþ ("broth, brewing") + ‎-en -> ‎bryþen ("brewing, drink")
Declension
Neuter

Etymology 2

From Proto-Germanic *-nj?, *-inj?, *-unj?

Alternative forms

Suffix

-en f

  1. (often causes i-mutation) used to create feminine nouns from other nouns
    god ("(male) god") + ‎-en -> ‎gyden ("goddess") (with i-muation)
    þ?ow ("(male) servant") + ‎-en -> ‎þ?owen ("female servant") (without i-mutation)
Declension
Feminine

Etymology 3

From Proto-Germanic *-?naz

Suffix

-en

  1. (causes i-mutation) adjectival suffix meaning "material made of, consisting of"
    gold ("gold") + ‎-en -> ‎gylden ("golden")
    ?tor ("poison") + ‎-en -> ‎?tren ("venomous, poisonous")
    st?n ("stone") + ‎-en -> ‎st?nen ("stonen")
    ?c ("oak") + ‎-en -> ‎?cen ("oaken")
    tr?ow ("tree") + ‎-en -> ‎tr?owen ("wooden")
    l?n ("flax") + ‎-en -> ‎l?nen ("linen")
    s? ("sea") + ‎-en -> ‎s?n ("marine")
Declension

Descendants

Etymology 4

From Proto-Germanic *-anaz

Suffix

-en

  1. (verbal suffix) past participle ending of strong verbs
    ?ecumen ("come")
    ?ecorfen ("carved")
    ?esw?gen ("swooned")

Etymology 5

From Proto-Germanic *-an-

Suffix

-en

  1. (adjective suffix) meaning belonging to or characterised by
    tungol ("star") + ‎-en -> ‎tunglen ("of the stars, sidereal, starry")
    fæder ("father") + ‎-en -> ‎fæderen ("paternal, of a father")
    hund ("dog, hound") + ‎-en -> ‎hunden ("canine")

Etymology 6

From Proto-Germanic *-?niz. Sometimes with geminate -nn-, probably due to confusion with the feminine suffix from *-inj?.

Suffix

-en f

  1. (causes i-mutation) forms nouns from class 1 weak verbs
    byrgan ("to bury") + ‎-en -> ‎byrgen ("burying, grave")
    sellan ("to give, grant") + ‎-en -> ‎selen ("giving, gift")
    þicgan ("to take, accept") + ‎-en -> ‎þigen ("taking") (inflected as strong and weak)

Slovene

Pronunciation

Suffix

-?n

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Derived terms



Spanish

Etymology

From Latin -ent and -unt

Suffix

-en

  1. Suffix indicating the third-person plural present indicative of -er and -ir verbs.
  2. Suffix indicating the third-person plural present subjunctive of -ar verbs.
  3. Suffix indicating the third-person plural imperative of -ar verbs.

See also


Swedish

Etymology

From Old Norse -inn, -in, from Proto-Germanic *jainaz, from Proto-Indo-European *i-.

Suffix

-en

  1. Suffix for definite form singular of common gender nouns which end in a consonant, e.g. ‎fisk ("fish") + ‎-en -> ‎fisken ("the fish"); see also -n.
  2. Suffix for definite form plural of neuter nouns ending with consonant, e.g. ‎träd ("tree") + ‎-en -> ‎träden ("the trees").
  3. Suffix for indefinite form plural of only the neuter noun huvud ("head"), e.g. ‎huvud ("head") + ‎-en -> ‎huvuden ("heads").
  4. Suffix for the past participle of verbs belonging to the fourth (strong) declension, e.g. ‎sjunga ("sing") + ‎-en -> ‎sjungen ("sung"), ‎skjuta ("shoot") + ‎-en -> ‎skjuten ("shot").
  5. Suffix which converts a few adjectives into adverbs, e.g. ‎möjlig ("possible") + ‎-en -> ‎möjligen ("possibly").

Welsh

Etymology

From Proto-Brythonic *-enn.[1]

Pronunciation

Suffix

-en f (masculine -yn)

  1. Used to form feminine singulative forms of certain words
    cylion ("gnats") + ‎-en -> ‎cylionen ("a gnat")

References

  1. ^ Schrijver, Peter C. H. (1995) Studies in British Celtic historical phonology (Leiden studies in Indo-European; 5), Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi, page 260

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