-an
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-an

English

Alternative forms

  • -ian (euphonic variant)
  • -n (when added to a word ending in a)

Etymology

From Middle English -an, regularly -ain, -ein, -en, from Old French -ain, -ein, or before i, -en (modern French -ain, -en, feminine -aine, -enne), from Latin -?nus (feminine -?na), which forms adjectives of belonging or origin from a noun, being -nus [cognate with Ancient Greek - (-nos)] preceded by a vowel, from Proto-Indo-European *-nós. Cognate with English -en. Compare with -in, -ine.

Suffix

-an

  1. Of or pertaining to; an adjectival suffix appended to various words, often nouns, to make an adjective form. (Often added to words of Latin origin, but also used with words of other origins. When a word ends in a, -n is used instead.)
    Rome + ‎-an -> ‎Roman
    Synonyms: -al, -ar, -ese, -esque, -ic, -id, -ish, -like, -oid, -ous, -y
  2. Appended to nouns to form an agent noun. (When males with a profession are distinguished from females, males are -an, females -(i)enne.)
    comedy + ‎-an -> ‎comedian
    history + ‎-an -> ‎historian

Derived terms


Translations

Anagrams


Chuukese

Suffix

-an

  1. (added to possessive nouns) his, hers, its

Related terms



Cimbrian

Etymology

From Middle High German -en, a merger of various terminations in Old High German reflecting different conjugational patterns, namely -an, -?n, -en (-ien), and -nen, from Proto-Germanic *-an?, *-?n?, *-jan?, *-?n?, and *-nan?. Cognate with German -en.

Suffix

-an

  1. A suffix of all verbs in their infinitive form.

Czech

Pronunciation

Suffix

-an m

  1. Forms nouns, including inhabitant names.

Derived terms


Further reading


Esperanto

Suffix

-an

  1. Obsolete form of -am.

See also


Finnish

Etymology 1

From earlier *-han, *-hVn, from Proto-Finnic *-hen, *-sen (passive or reflexive suffix). Initial -ta- is from the causative suffix as seen in *-tadak.

Suffix

-an

  1. (personal) Forms the impersonal indicative present forms of verbs that include back vowels (a, o or u or i or e with a, o or u — compare -än), appended to the infinitive.
    • No changes in verbs that end in one a.
    juosta + ‎-an -> ‎juostaan
    • Verbs ending in -oa the beginning stem is followed by -ta- and then by this.
    sanoa, stem sano- + -ta- + -an -> sanotaan
    • Verbs ending in -aa or -ea the beginning stem is followed by -eta- and then by this.
    laittaa, stem lait- + -eta- + -an -> laitetaan
    paistaa, stem paist- + -eta- + -an -> paistetaan
    laskea, stem lask- + -eta- + -an -> lasketaan

Etymology 2

See -Vn.

Suffix

-an

  1. (case suffix) A suffix variant for the illative singular, see -Vn.
    laiva boat (word includes back vowels, a — cf. -än) -> + -an = laivaan (on)to a/the boat; (in)to a/the boat

Etymology 3

From earlier *-hVn, from Proto-Uralic *-sin, the third-person dual possessive for singular nouns.

Suffix

-an

  1. (possessive) A variant for the third-person suffix -nsa, see the usage notes below.

Usage notes

When the third-person suffix -nsa is appended to non-nominative noun forms that end in a single -a (those that are in singular and plural inessive, elative, adessive, ablative, essive and abessive and plural partitive and singular partitive ending with -ta), the S and A are very often omitted from the suffix and the last A of the case suffix preceding the remaining N is doubled — resulting in this -an. In standard Finnish, both the "full" form and the shortened form are acceptable (cf. -nsä). This same omission takes very often place also in the nominal verb forms used in shortened sentences (see the meanings of -nsa) and in the adverbs requiring this suffix:

Singular
(parti.) laitettansa -> laitettaan — koiraansa -> -"- (no changes)
(iness.) laitteessansa -> laitteessaan — koirassansa -> koirassaan
(elat.) laitteestansa -> laitteestaan — koirastansa -> koirastaan
(adess.) laitteellansa -> laitteellaan — koirallansa -> koirallaan
(ablat.) laitteeltansa -> laitteeltaan — koiraltansa -> koiraltaan
(ess.) laitteenansa -> laitteenaan — koiranansa -> koiranaan
(abess.) laitteettansa -> laitteettaan — koirattansa -> koirattaan
Plural
(partit.) laitteitansa -> laitteitaan — koiriansa -> koiriaan
(iness.) laitteissansa -> laitteissaan — koirissansa -> koirissaan
(elat.) laitteistansa -> laitteistaan — koiristansa -> koiristaan
(adess.) laitteillansa -> laitteillaan — koirillansa -> koirillaan
(ablat.) laitteiltansa -> laitteiltaan — koiriltansa -> koiriltaan
(ess.) laitteinansa -> laitteinaan — koirinansa -> koirinaan
(abess.) laitteittansa -> laitteittaan — koirittansa -> koirittaan

Anagrams


Hungarian

Pronunciation

Suffix

-an

  1. (adverb-forming suffix) Added to an adjective or numeral to create an adverb.
    pontos ("accurate") + ‎-an -> ‎pontosan ("accurately")
    hat ("six") -> Hatan mentünk moziba. - Six of us went to the cinema.
    nyolc ("eight") ->
    Nyolcan vannak a szobában. - There are eight people in the room.
  2. (verb-forming suffix) Added to a stem - often an onomatopoeia - to form a verb expressing an instantaneous action.
    kattan ("to click, to make one clicking sound")
    robban ("to explode")

Usage notes

  • (adverb-forming suffix) Harmonic variants:
    -n is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
    -an is added to back vowel words ending in a consonant
    -en is added to front vowel words ending in a consonant
  • (verb-forming suffix) Harmonic variants:
    -on is added to some back-vowel words
    -an is added to back vowel words
    -en is added to front vowel words

Derived terms


See also


Indonesian

Etymology

From Malay -an, from Proto-Malayic *-an, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *-an, from Proto-Austronesian *-an.

Suffix

-an

  1. Suffix for collectivity
  2. Suffix for similarity
  3. Suffix for object
  4. Suffix for place
  5. Suffix for instrument
    bangun ("to wake up, to get up") + ‎-an -> ‎bangunan ("building")

Malay

Etymology

From Proto-Malayic *-an, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *-an, from Proto-Austronesian *-an.

Pronunciation

Suffix

-an (Jawi spelling -)

  1. Suffix for collectivity
  2. Suffix for similarity
  3. Suffix for object
  4. Suffix for place
  5. Suffix for instrument
    bangun ("to wake up, to get up") + ‎-an -> ‎bangunan ("building")

Manx

Etymology

From Old Irish -án, from Primitive Irish -? (-agni).

Suffix

-an m

  1. Alternative form of -ane

Derived terms



Old English

Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *-an?

Pronunciation

Suffix

-an

  1. (verbal suffix) used to form the infinitive of most verbs (exceptions are verbs like fl?on ("to flee"))
    singan - to sing
    niman - to take

Old Norse

Etymology 1

Presumably from Proto-Germanic *-?niz.

Suffix

-an

  1. (deverbative suffix) Used to derive nouns from class 2 weak verbs.
    friða ("to pacify") + ‎-an -> ‎friðan ("pacifying")
    sanna ("to assert, prove") + ‎-an -> ‎sannan ("assertion, confirmation")
    synja ("to deny") + ‎-an -> ‎synjan ("denial")
Derived terms


Etymology 2

From Proto-Germanic *-an?

Suffix

-an

  1. Forms adverbs with ablative direction.
Derived terms


Etymology 3

Suffix

-an

  1. strong accusative singular ending of adjectives

Old Saxon

Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *-an?

Suffix

-an

  1. (verbal suffix) used to form the infinitive of strong verbs (exceptions are a few verbs ending in -ian like biddian or liggian)
    drinkan ("to drink")
    hwer?an ("to travel")

Romanian

Etymology

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: "Needs splitting by etymology")

Pronunciation

Suffix

-an m or n (feminine singular -an?, masculine plural -ani, feminine and neuter plural -ane)

  1. Added to nouns and adjectives as an augmentative suffix.
    gras ("fat") + ‎-an -> ‎gr?san ("fatso")
  2. Forms adjectives and nouns describing things and characteristics of a city, region, or country; -an
    Australia ("Australia") + ‎-an -> ‎australian ("Australian")
  3. Forms names of male animals.
    gâsc? ("goose") + ‎-an -> ‎gâscan ("gander")

Declension

Derived terms



Scottish Gaelic

Etymology 1

From Old Irish -án, from Primitive Irish -? (-agni).

Pronunciation

Usage notes

The non-schwa clear vowel /a/ distinguishes this from the homograph plural suffix -an which is pronounced /?n/ i.e. with a schwa.

Suffix

-an m

  1. A masculine suffix used to form nouns meaning a smaller form of something, often used for male given names.
    Cailean, Eòghan, Ailean, Beathan
    clàran, clachan, bioran

Etymology 2

Cognate to Irish -anna, Manx -yn.

Pronunciation

Suffix

-an pl

  1. Used to form regular plurals of nouns.
    clach ("stone") + ‎-an -> ‎clachan
    damh ("ox, stag") + ‎-an -> ‎damhan
    leannan ("lover, sweetheart") + ‎-an -> ‎leannanan

Derived terms



Serbo-Croatian

Etymology 1

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix

-an (Cyrillic spelling -)

  1. Suffix appended to words to create a masculine noun, usually denoting a (often negative) feature or endearment.

Etymology 2

From Proto-Slavic *-?n?.

Suffix

-an (Cyrillic spelling -)

  1. Suffix appended to words to create an adjective.

Derived terms


See also


Spanish

Etymology 1

From Latin -ant, the third-person plural present active indicative ending of first conjugation verbs.

Suffix

-an

  1. Suffix indicating the third-person plural (also used with ustedes) present indicative of -ar verbs.

Etymology 2

From Latin -eant, Latin -ant, and Latin -iant, the third-person plural present active subjunctive endings of second, third, and fourth conjugation verbs, respectively.

Suffix

-an

  1. Suffix indicating the third-person plural (also used with ustedes) present subjunctive of -er and -ir verbs.
  2. Suffix indicating the third-person plural imperative of -er and -ir verbs.

See also


Swedish

Suffix

-an

  1. making a noun from a verb, similar to -ing and -ning, having -ningar as the plural.
    predika ("to preach") + ‎-an -> ‎predikan ("a sermon")
  2. -an; making a noun, describing a person by belief or nationality
    Tibet + ‎-an -> ‎tibetan
    lutheran
    vegetarian

Derived terms


Anagrams


Tagalog

Suffix

-an

  1. object trigger: to do something to a person or a thing
    Buksan mo ang pinto. - (You) open the door
    (door is focused).)
  2. object trigger: to cause something to become; to make
    Binagalan ni Sue ang kotse. - Sue slowed down the car.
    (The car is focused.)
  3. directional trigger: to do something in the (physical or psychological) direction of
    Tinitingnan ko ang manwal. - I'm looking at the manual.
    (The manual is focused).)
  4. benefactive trigger: to do something for
    Titirhan ko si Roy ng keyk. - I'll leave some cake for Roy.
    (Roy is focused).)
  5. object trigger: (with root word reduplication) to do something occasionally, at random, a little, a bit, now and then or here and there
    Winawalis-walisan; ko ang sahig. - I'm sweeping the floor a bit.
    (The floor is focused).)
  6. directional trigger: (with root word reduplication) to do something in the (physical or psychological) direction of, occasionally, at random, a little, a bit, now and then or here and there
    Tinutulung-tulungan ni Jessy si Patty. - Jessy helped Patty a bit.
    (Patty is focused).)
  7. object trigger: to perform the action of the verb on something
    Huwag mong sulatan ang dokumento. - Don't write anything on the document.

Suffix

-an

  1. a place where a large quantity of the thing meant by the root is put, planted, or can be found
    aklat ("book") + ‎-an -> ‎aklatan ("library")
    basura ("trash") + ‎-an -> ‎basurahan ("trash can")
  2. a place where the action expressed by the root is performed
    kain ("eat") + ‎-an -> ‎kainan ("place where people eat e.g. restaurant, café,...")
  3. a period in which the action expressed by the root is collectively performed
    ani ("harvest") + ‎-an -> ‎anihan ("harvest time")
    pasok ("entry, class, work") + ‎-an -> ‎pasukan ("school time, school year")
  4. a tool or an object that is used to measure what is meant by the root
    oras ("time") + ‎-an -> ‎orasan ("clock, watch")
    timbang ("weight") + ‎-an -> ‎timbangan ("weighing scale")
  5. reciprocal or joint performance of the action expressed by the root
    sayaw ("dance") + ‎-an -> ‎sayawan ("dancing together")
    kanta ("sing") + ‎-an -> ‎kantahan ("singing together")
  6. (used with reduplication of root word) Used to create a diminutive, pretensive, or imitative form of something
    bahay ("house") + ‎-an -> ‎bahay-bahayan ("toy house")
    Diyos ("God") + ‎-an -> ‎diyos-diyosan ("false god")
    baril ("gun") + ‎-an -> ‎baril-barilan ("toy gun")

Usage notes

  • Normally, /h/ is inserted before -an when the root word end with a vowel that is not followed by a glottal stop. In some cases, phoneme change can occur and /h/ becomes /n/.
    ganti + ‎-an -> ‎gantihan
    talo + ‎-an -> ‎talunan
  • Sometimes, the final vowel of the root word disappears when the suffix is added.
    sunod + ‎-an -> ‎sundan
    takip + ‎-an -> ‎takpan

Derived terms



Volapük

Suffix

-an

  1. Used to indicate someone who is or does something

Derived terms



Welsh

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

Suffix

-an

  1. diminutive suffix, -let
    bwyell ("axe") + ‎-an -> ‎bwyellan ("small axe, hatchet")
    gwraig ("woman, wife") + ‎-an -> ‎gwreigan ("little woman, little wife")
    barf ("beard") + ‎-an -> ‎barfan ("little beard, goatee, whiskers")
  2. person or object with characteristics of the root word
    mud ("mute") + ‎-an -> ‎mudan ("mute person")
    llai ("grey") + ‎-an -> ‎lleian ("nun")
    crwm ("crooked, curved") + ‎-an -> ‎cryman ("sickle, pruning hook")
  3. used to form pet names
    Gwen + ‎-an -> ‎Gwennan
    Dai + ‎-an -> ‎Deian
    Elisabeth + ‎-an -> ‎Bethan

Etymology 2

Alternative forms

Suffix

-an

  1. verbnoun suffix

Etymology 3

Suffix

-an

  1. (colloquial) verb suffix for the third-person plural future

Derived terms


References

R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950-), "-an", in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies


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-an
 



 



 
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