-a
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-a

Translingual

Etymology

From Latin -a.

Suffix

-a

  1. Used to create genus names from proper nouns
  2. Used to take the form of certain plural Latin-derived taxonomic names

Derived terms



English

Etymology 1

From the homographic case endings of the nominative, accusative, and vocative forms of numerous Latin neuter second declension nouns.

Pronunciation

Suffix

-a

  1. plural of -um
  2. plural of -on
Usage notes
  • Whereas the regular pluralization in English involves adding -s or -es, English words derived from a Latin/Greek etymon where the Latin/Greek would pluralize from -on (Greek) or -um (Latin) to -a do not always do so. Usage of -a instead of -s differs between words: sometimes the two are interchangeable (e.g. memorandums/memoranda, polyhedrons/polyhedra), sometimes one is far more common than the other (e.g. neurons over neura, automata over automatons), and sometimes one is completely absent from usage (e.g. bacteria over bacteriums, dendrons over dendra)
Derived terms
From -um
From -on
Translations
See also
associated suffixes

Etymology 2

Representing the nominative singular case ending of Latin first-declension feminine nouns.

Pronunciation

Suffix

-a (plural -ae or )

  1. Marks singular nouns, with a foundation in Greek or Latin, often implying femininity, especially when contrasted with words terminating in -us.
    Synonyms: -ess, -ette, -rix, she-
Derived terms

Etymology 3

From Latin -a.

Pronunciation

Suffix

-a

  1. Changes an element or substance into an oxide.
    magnesium + ‎-a -> ‎magnesia

Etymology 4

Shortened version of verb have.

Pronunciation

Suffix

-a

  1. (slang) Alternative form of 've

Etymology 5

Representing Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish feminine nouns.

Pronunciation

Suffix

-a

  1. Marks nouns, with a foundation in Italian, Spanish, or Portuguese, implying femininity.

Etymology 6

Added especially for metrical reasons, or as an empy filler syllable.

Pronunciation

Suffix

-a

  1. Added for metrical reasons to songs, poetry and verse, or as an empty filler syllable to other speech.
    • 1623, Shakespeare, The Winter's Tale, IV.iii:
      A merry heart goes all the day
      Your sad tires in a mile-a
    • 1936 July 18, Leon Schlesinger (producer) / Norman Spencer (music), I Love to Singa:
      I love to sing-a / about the moon-a and the June-a and the spring-a, / I love to sing-a / about a sky of blue-a, or a tea for two-a.
    • 2014, Don Pendleton, California Hit, Open Road Media (->ISBN)
      "I'm-a tell-a you why you better be. I named you in my will, Franco."
Alternative forms

Etymology 7

Shortened version of preposition of.

Pronunciation

Suffix

-a

  1. (slang) clitic form of o' (contraction of of)

Etymology 8

Shortened version of verb to.

Pronunciation

Suffix

-a

  1. (informal) to (infinitive marker)

See also

  • -er (which, in various non-rhotic dialects, reduces to -a, e.g. fatha, burna), compare -z

References


Albanian

Pronunciation

Etymology

Related to Albanian e ("of, the, to") and -e.

Article

-a f

  1. feminine singular nominative suffixed definite article: the
    ditë ("day") + ‎-a -> ‎dita ("the day")
    natë ("night") + ‎-a -> ‎nata ("the night")

Related terms

suffixed article, suffix
article, preposition

Czech

Pronunciation

Suffix

-a

  1. Forms agent nouns.
    radit + ‎-a -> ‎rada
  2. Forms nouns referring to results of processes.
    naladit + ‎-a -> ‎nálada

Derived terms


Further reading


Dutch

Pronunciation

  • (file)

Suffix

-a

  1. Plural form of -um
    Synonym: -ums
  2. feminine of -us

Esperanto

Etymology

From feminine singular adjectives (and nouns) of the Romance languages, such as French ma, Italian mia, Spanish mía, fría.

Suffix

-a

  1. Related to, in the manner of, of. Ending for all adjectives in Esperanto.
    belo ("beauty") + ‎-a -> ‎bela ("beautiful")
    dekstro ("the right direction") (as opposed to left) + ‎-a -> ‎dekstra ("to the right")
    vero ("truth") + ‎-a -> ‎vera ("true")
  2. Belonging to, of. Ending for all possessive pronouns in Esperanto.
    mi ("I; me") + ‎-a -> ‎mia ("of me, my")
    vi ("you") + ‎-a -> ‎via ("of you, your")
    ili ("they; them") + ‎-a -> ‎ilia ("of them, their")
  3. Used to form the ordinal numeral.
    unu ("one") + ‎-a -> ‎unua ("first")
    du ("two") + ‎-a -> ‎dua ("second")
    dek tri ("thirteen") + ‎-a -> ‎dek-tria ("thirteenth")
    cent ("hundred") + ‎-a -> ‎centa ("hundredth")
  4. -kind of. Ending of all correlatives of kind in Esperanto.
    ki- + ‎-a -> ‎kia ("what kind of")
    ti- + ‎-a -> ‎tia ("that kind of")
    neni- + ‎-a -> ‎nenia ("no kind of")

Derived terms

Ending for all adjectives.
Ending for all possessive pronouns in Esperanto.
Ending of all ordinal numerals in Esperanto.
Ending of all correlatives of kind in Esperanto.

Finnish

Alternative forms

  • (in words with front vowel harmony)

Etymology 1

From Proto-Finnic *-da, from the Proto-Uralic ablative case *-ta. A variant form *-ta (whence Finnish -ta) was used after a syllable with secondary stress (suffixal gradation).

Suffix

-a (front vowel harmony variant )

  1. (case suffix) Forms the partitive case of nouns, adjectives, numbers and some pronouns.

Usage notes

  • This suffix is used after a short vowel or the plural marker -j-.

Etymology 2

From Proto-Finnic *-dak. Historically, a form of a lative suffix.

Suffix

-a (front vowel harmony variant )

  1. (verbal suffix) Forms the short form of the first infinitive of verbs.

Usage notes

  • The first infinitive, short form, is the citation form of verbs.

See also


French

Pronunciation

Suffix

-a

  1. Suffix indicating the third-person singular past historic of -er verbs.

Etymology

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Garo

Suffix

-a

  1. neutral, unmarked tense-aspect marker

Usage notes

In addition to present time, it often shows habitual action, and can also past and future


Gothic

Romanization

-a

  1. Romanization of -?

Hungarian

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

From the *s third-person personal pronoun of the ancestor language after it was appended to the word of possession. According to some linguists this attachment happened in the Proto-Uralic era, while others think it happened much later when the Hungarian language became independent.[1]

Suffix

-a

  1. (possessive suffix) [1055]
    1. (after a single possessor) his, her, its, -'s, of (third-person singular, single possession)
      ház ("house") + ‎-a -> ‎a háza ("his/her/its house")
      ház ("house") -> Anna háza ("Anna's house")
      ház ("house") -> a felkel? nap háza ("the house of the rising sun")
    2. (after a plural possessor) -s', of...-s (third-person plural, single possession)
      ház ("house") -> a szüleim háza ("my parents' house")
      ház ("house") -> a trópusi növények háza ("the house of tropical plants" [literally, "the tropical plants' house"])
    3. (with time expressions, referring to a point in time) ago
      Egy évszázada ment el. - S/he left one century ago.
      Synonym: -val/-vel ezel?tt (e.g. egy évszázaddal ezel?tt ["-val" assimilated to "-dal"])
    4. (with time expressions, referring to a duration of time preceding the point of time in question) for
      Egy évszázada várunk rád. - We have been waiting for you for a century.
    5. (mostly with quantities, often following -ik) of, out of (partitive sense)
      Synonym: közül (only with countable quantities)
      / jav- ("the greater/better part") -> a java még hátravan ("the best/bulk is yet to come", literally "its best/bulk is...")
      legnagyobbik ("the biggest one") -> a bikák legnagyobbika ("the biggest [one] of the bulls"; the same meaning as a legnagyobb bika)
  2. (personal suffix) [end of the 12th century] Third-person singular personal suffix in back-vowel verbs. Today it can be found in the third-person singular definite forms (indicative past and imperative conjugations) as part of the suffix -ja, -ta.
    tud ("to know") -> tudta ("he/she knew [that]")
    tud ("to know") -> tudja ("know (imperative mood)")
  3. (personal suffix) [end of the 12th century] Third-person singular personal suffix in back-vowel conjugated infinitives and in the declined and postposition forms of the third-person personal pronoun ? ("he/she/it").
    tanulni ("to study") -> tanulnia kell ("he/she must study")
    -ról ("about") -> róla ("about him/her/it")
    után ("after") -> utána ("after him/her/it")
Usage notes
  • (possessive suffix) Variants:
    -a is added to back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -e is added to front-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -ja is added to back-vowel words ending in a consonant or a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-; final -o changes to -ó-.
    -je is added to front-vowel words ending in a consonant or a vowel. Final -e changes to -é-; final changes to -?-.
    • This suffix (in all forms) is normally used for the third-person singular possessive (single possession) but, after an explicit plural possessor, it also expresses the third-person plural possessive (single possession), e.g. "the children's ball" (a gyerekek labdája). If the possessor is implicit (not named, only marked by a suffix), the plural possessive suffix must be used, e.g. "their ball" (a labdájuk, see -juk and its variants).
Declension
Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative -a
accusative -át
dative -ának
instrumental -ával
causal-final -áért
translative -ává
terminative -áig
essive-formal -aként
essive-modal -ául
inessive -ában
superessive -án
adessive -ánál
illative -ába
sublative -ára
allative -ához
elative -ából
delative -áról
ablative -ától
non-attributive
possessive - singular
-áé
non-attributive
possessive - plural
-áéi

See also

Etymology 2

[1055] It can be traced back to Proto-Uralic *-i? which with the word-final vowel created the diphthong -ai?/-ei?. This had simplified to -á/-é, finally in the Old Hungarian era it had shortened to -a/-e. It was a productive suffix at that time, the back-vowel variant was used even in front-vowel words such as the Old Hungarian female given names Fehéra and Szépa, derived from fehér ("light in color") and szép ("beautiful"), respectively.[1]

Suffix

-a

  1. (diminutive suffix) The back-vowel variant of the -a/-e diminutive suffix pair. In the past it could be found in common nouns, as well, but today it is used mostly in given names.
    cic ("the sound for calling a cat") -> cica ("kitten")
    Zsigmond ("Siegmund") -> Zsiga ("Sig")

Etymology 3

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix

-a

  1. (personal suffix, archaic) Used to form the third-person singular indicative past indefinite, for back-vowel verbs. The front-vowel version is -e. The suffix currently used in this place is -t, -tt, or -ott. For the full paradigm, see the usage template.

Etymology 4

Along with its front-vowel counterpart -e, from the diphthongs -ai?/-ei?, developing to -á/-é, then shortened to this form by the end of the early Old Hungarian period. After the participle suffix became fixed as /-?, the remaining words suffixed with -a/-e underwent conversion; some became adjectives, others, nouns.[1]

Suffix

-a

  1. (obsolete participle suffix) Synonym of (present-participle suffix) From a synchronic perspective, it can be viewed as a nominal-forming suffix, preserved in some adjectives and nouns (see below). No longer productive. Its front-vowel version is -e.
Derived terms

References

  1. ? 1.01.11.2 Zaicz, Gábor. Etimológiai szótár: Magyar szavak és toldalékok eredete ('Dictionary of Etymology: The origin of Hungarian words and affixes'). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2006, ->ISBN

Icelandic

Suffix

-a

  1. Used to form verbs from nouns.
    spark ("a kick") + ‎-a -> ‎sparka ("to kick")
    mjólk ("milk") + ‎-a -> ‎mjólka ("to milk")
    von ("hope") + ‎-a -> ‎vona ("to hope")
    ávarp ("an address") + ‎-a -> ‎ávarpa ("to address")
    rit ("a writ") + ‎-a -> ‎rita ("to write")
    rass ("an ass") + ‎-a -> ‎rassa ("to spank (on the ass)")
  2. Used to form adverbs from adjectives.
    illur ("bad") + ‎-a -> ‎illa ("badly")

Derived terms

See also


Ido

Pronunciation

Suffix

-a

  1. suffix denoting adjective.
    arjento ("silver", noun) + ‎-a -> ‎arjenta ("silver", adjective)

Derived terms


Usage notes

One may elide the final a of the adjectives, but with the condition not to produce accumulation from the consonants. One advise to use the elision mainly with the derivatived adjectives and particularly when they finish with -al-(a).[1]

References

  1. ^ "KGD", in Kompleta gramatiko detaloza[1] (in Ido), accessed 2015-12-23, archived from the original on 27 January 2012

Irish

Suffix

-a

  1. plural ending of certain nouns
  2. plural ending of adjectives in the nominative, vocative, dative, and strong genitive cases
  3. genitive singular ending of third-declension nouns

Italian

Suffix

-a

  1. Used, with a stem, to form the third-person singular present tense of -are verbs.
  2. Used, with a stem, to form the second-person singular imperative of -are verbs.
  3. Used, with a stem, to form the first-person singular, second-person singular and third-person singular present subjunctive of -ere verbs, and of those -ire verbs that do not insert -isc-.
  4. Used, with a stem, to form the third-person singular imperative of -ere verbs, and of those -ire verbs that do not insert -isc-.

Latin

Etymology 1

From Proto-Italic *-?, from Proto-Indo-European *-ih? (feminine suffix) (forming in this case masculine nouns).

Pronunciation

Suffix

-a f or m (genitive -ae); first declension

  1. suffixed to the roots of verbs, forms (usually masculine) agent nouns
    adveni? + ‎-a -> ‎advena
    caed? + ‎-a -> ‎-c?da
    col? + ‎-a -> ‎-cola
    c?nferve? + ‎-a -> ‎c?nferva f
    c?nsolid? + ‎-a -> ‎c?nsolida f
    scr?b? + ‎-a -> ‎scr?ba
Declension

First-declension noun.

Synonyms
  • (suffixed to the roots of verbs, forms masculine agent nouns): -?¹
Derived terms


References

Etymology 2

From Old Latin -?d, originally the ablative feminine singular form of first-declension adjectives (compare -us (suffix forming adjectives)).

Pronunciation

Suffix

-? (not comparable)

  1. suffixed chiefly to the stems of adjectives terminating in -ter, forms adverbs which are frequently also used as prepositions
    cis + -? -> citr?
    exter + -? -> extr?
    in- + -ter + -? -> intr?
    uls + -? -> ultr?
Derived terms


References

Etymology 3

See the etymology of the main entry.

Pronunciation

Suffix

-a

  1. inflection of -us:
    1. nominative/vocative feminine singular
    2. nominative/accusative/vocative neuter plural

Suffix

-?

  1. ablative feminine singular of -us

Etymology 4

A conjugated form of -?³ (suffix forming verbs).

Pronunciation

Suffix

-?

  1. second-person singular present active imperative of -?

Latvian

Suffix

-a

  1. Used to derive feminine nouns from masculine nouns (like English -ess).
    Synonym: -e

Derived terms


Related terms

Feminine suffixes that include -a

Lushootseed

Suffix

-a

  1. and (attached only to d, x?, & l?p)

Derived terms



Maltese

Alternative forms

  • -ja (used after -i, -j; also another ending of different origin)
  • -wa (used after -u, -w)

Etymology

From Arabic ?(-a), reinforced by Sicilian and Italian -a, which are unrelated but used similarly.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /a/
  • Homophone: -ha (distinct after -h, -?, -g?; may also trigger different stem alternations)

Suffix

-a

  1. Used to form the feminine forms of most nouns and adjectives.
  2. Used to form the plurals of some nouns and adjectives.
  3. Used to form singulatives from collective nouns. (For simplicity, singulatives may be treated as the bases whence the collectives are formed by deleting -a.)

Northern Sami

Etymology

From Proto-Samic *-ëk. Cognate with Finnish -e.

Pronunciation

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Suffix

-a (with odd-syllable stems -at)

  1. Forms nouns from verbs, indicating something used for performing the verb.
    loavdit ("to cover the tent") + ‎-a -> ‎loavdda ("tent cloth")
  2. Forms nouns from verbs, indicating something that results from having the verb's action performed.
    ?állit ("to write") + ‎-a -> ‎?ála ("writing")

Usage notes

This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable in the nominative singular and essive, and the strong grade in the other forms.

Inflection

Odd, no gradation
Nominative -at
Genitive -aga
Singular Plural
Nominative -at -agat
Accusative -aga -agiid
Genitive -aga -agiid
Illative -agii -agiidda
Locative -agis -agiin
Comitative -agiin -agiiguin
Essive -agin
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person -agan -ageam? -ageam?t
2nd person -agat -ageatt? -ageatt?t
3rd person -agis -ageaskk? -ageas?t

Derived terms



Norwegian Nynorsk

Suffix

-a

  1. the, Definite marker used for
    Synonym: -i (only for strong nouns; nonstandard since 2012)
    1. the definite singular of (strong) feminine nouns.
    2. the definite plural of strong neuter nouns.
    3. (dialectal) the dative singular case of strong masculine nouns.
    4. (archaic, nonstandard) Used to form definite singular dative case of weak masculine and neuter nouns
  2. -ed, Used for:
    1. the past tense of a-verbs.
    2. the supines of a-verbs and some preterite-present verbs (e.g. har bada, kasta, kunna, skulla, vilja).
    3. the past participles of a-verbs.
    4. adjectives (e.g. grepa, heilhjarta).
  3. Used to form an infinitive form for most verbs. When using split infinitive, this only applies to a select group.
  4. Used to form singular indefinite feminine form of some pronouns and adjectives (e.g. inga, lita, noka etc.).
    Synonym: -i (non-standard since 2012)
  5. plural of -um
  6. plural of -on
  7. Used as an ending of weak nouns and adjectives. Used for:
    1. the singular of weak feminine nouns, indefinite (non-standard since 2012) and definite forms.
    2. the singular of weak neuter nouns, indefinite and definite forms (e.g. auga, hjarta, øyra).
    3. (dated or dialectal) adverbs ( superseded by -e).
    4. (Aasen, archaic or dialectal) the singular definite feminine and neuter forms of adjectives.
  8. (Aasen, archaic, nonstandard) Used to form the feminine indefinite plural of adjectives.
  9. (Aasen, archaic, nonstandard) Used to form the genitive plural of nouns.
    Synonyms: -a-, -e-

Anagrams


Old English

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

From Proto-Germanic *-ô.

Alternative forms

Suffix

-a

  1. Ending forming adverbs
    hwær + ‎-a -> ‎hw?ra ("where")
    ?il?co - similarly
    singal ("continuous") + ‎-a -> ‎singala ("continually, constantly")
    Synonym: -le

Etymology 2

From Proto-Germanic *-ô. Cognate with Old High German -o.

Suffix

-a

  1. nominative masculine n-stem ending
    nama - name
    sa - shadow
  2. used to form masculine agents from verbs
    huntian ("to hunt") + ‎-a -> ‎hunta ("hunter")
    etan ("to eat") + ‎-a -> ‎?ta ("eater")
    ?iefan ("to give") + ‎-a -> ‎?iefa ("giver")
    witan ("to know") + ‎-a -> ‎wita ("wise man")
    Synonym: -ere
Declension
Derived terms


Descendants
  • Middle English: -e

Old Irish

Pronoun

-a

  1. combines with prepositions to form a relative pronoun
    ar ("for the sake of") + ‎-a -> ‎ara ("for the sake of whom/which")

Derived terms



Old Norse

Etymology 1

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Alternative forms

Suffix

-a

  1. indicates negation; does not

Etymology 2

From Proto-Germanic *-?n?.

Suffix

-a

  1. Creates denominative verbs from nouns
  2. Creates factitive verbs from adjectives
Conjugation
Derived terms

Descendants

  • Danish: -e
  • Icelandic: -a
  • Faroese: -a
  • Norwegian:
    Norwegian Nynorsk: -e
    Norwegian Nynorsk: -a
  • Old Swedish: -a
    • Swedish: -a

Etymology 3

From Proto-Germanic *-ê and *-ô.

Suffix

-a

  1. Used to make adverbs from adjectives
    gjarn + ‎-a -> ‎gjarna

Etymology 4

From Proto-Germanic *-? or *-ô.

Suffix

-a f or n

  1. Occurs in the nominative singular of feminine on-stem nouns
  2. Occurs in the singular of neuter an-stem nouns
Declension

Etymology 5

Different noun forms.

Suffix

-a

  1. indefinite genitive plural (of nouns)
  2. inflection of -i (masculine an-stem nouns):
    1. indefinite oblique singular
    2. indefinite accusative plural
  3. indefinite accusative plural of -r (masculine a-stem nouns)

Old Swedish

Etymology

From Old Norse -a.

Suffix

-a

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    sighia
    to say
    hælgha
    to celebrate

Descendants

  • Swedish: -a

Phalura

Etymology 1

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation

Suffix

-a

  1. Third person singular suffix
Alternative forms
  • -íi (With e-ending verb stems)
  • -óo (With a-ending verb stems)
  • -e (Biori)
  • -úu (With a-ending verb stems in Biori)

References

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[2], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, ->ISBN

Etymology 2

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation

Suffix

-a

  1. Plural suffix (with a-declension nouns)
Alternative forms
  • (With accent-shifting nouns)
  • -ée (Alternation with ái-a for ai-ending nouns)

References

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[3], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, ->ISBN

Etymology 3

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation

Suffix

-a

  1. Oblique case suffix (with a-declension nouns)
Alternative forms
  • (With accent shifting nouns)
  • -ée (Alternation with ái-a for ai-ending nouns)

References

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[4], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, ->ISBN

Etymology 4

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation

Suffix

-a

  1. Masculine plural agreement suffix

References

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[5], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, ->ISBN

Etymology 5

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation

Suffix

-a

  1. Masculine non-nominative and non-singular agreement suffix

References

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[6], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, ->ISBN

Portuguese

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

From Old Portuguese -a, from Latin -am, accusative singular of -a.

Suffix

-a f

  1. forms feminine nouns and adjectives
    Uruguai ("Uruguay") + ‎-a -> ‎uruguaia ("woman from Uruguay")

Etymology 2

From Old Portuguese -a, from Latin -at.

Suffix

-a

  1. forms the third-person singular present indicative of verbs ending in -ar
    João fala português. - John speaks Portuguese.

Etymology 3

From Old Portuguese -a, from Latin -?.

Suffix

-a

  1. forms the second-person singular affirmative imperative of verbs ending in -ar
    João, conta-nos o seu apelido. - John, tell us your last name.

Etymology 4

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix

-a

  1. forms the first-person singular present subjunctive of verbs ending in -er and -ir
    É importante que eu coma carne. - It is important that I eat meat.
  2. forms the third-person singular present subjunctive of verbs ending in -er and -ir
    É importante que ele coma carne. - It is important that he eat meat.
  3. forms the third-person singular affirmative imperative of verbs ending in -er and -ir
    Ei você aí, coma carne. - Hey you there, eat meat.
  4. forms the third-person singular negative imperative of verbs ending in -er and -ir
    Ei você aí, não coma carne. - Hey you there, don't eat meat.
Usage notes

The third-person imperative isn't used with third person pronouns, it's used with você, which is a second-person pronoun but always takes third-person conjugation.

Etymology 5

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix

-a

  1. (slang) used in the end of shortenings
    vestibular + ‎-a -> ‎vestiba ("university admittance test")
    vagabundo + ‎-a -> ‎vagaba ("loafer")

Romanian

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

From Latin illa, nominative feminine singular of ille.

Alternative forms

  • -ua (used for feminine nouns ending in a stressed vowel or diphthong)

Suffix

-a f

  1. (definite article) the (feminine singular, nominative and accusative)
Usage notes

This form of the definite article is used for feminine nouns in the nominative and accusative cases which end in -? or in an unstressed vowel:

The suffix is also used with feminine adjectives in the nominative and accusative cases to make the articulated definite form, often for emphasis, and it is used before the noun it modifies:

Related terms
  • -ei (feminine singular genitive and dative)
  • -i (masculine/neuter plural nominative and accusative)
  • -l (masculine/neuter singular nominative and accusative)
  • -le (feminine plural nominative and accusative)
  • -lor (plural genitive and dative)
  • -lui (masculine/neuter singular genitive and dative)

Etymology 2

From Latin -?re, the ending of the present active infinitive form of first conjugation verbs. Cognate with Spanish -ar, French -er, Italian -are, etc.

Suffix

-a

  1. A suffix forming infinitives of many verbs.
Related terms

See also

Derived terms



Serbo-Croatian

Etymology 1

Suffix

-a (Cyrillic spelling -?)

  1. Suffix appended to words (usually verbal stems) to create a feminine noun, usually denoting a relation or to form a proper noun.

Etymology 2

From Proto-Slavic *-a, from Proto-Indo-European *-?d, the thematic ablative ending.

Suffix

-a (Cyrillic spelling -?)

  1. Forms the genitive singular of masculine and neuter nouns and indefinite adjectives.

Slovak

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Proto-Slavic *-?.

Suffix

-a n

  1. Forms nouns for young animals and other diminutives.

Declension

Usage notes

  • After labio-dental and bilabial consonants is used instead.

Spanish

Etymology 1

From Latin -a.

Suffix

-a

  1. -ess used to form feminine singular nouns
    señor ("gentleman") + ‎-a -> ‎señora ("lady")
    camarero ("waiter") + ‎-a -> ‎camarera ("waitress")
  2. used to form the feminine singular adjectives
    frío ("cold") + ‎-a -> ‎fría ("cold")

Etymology 2

From Latin -at, the third-person singular present active indicative ending of first conjugation verbs.

Suffix

-a

  1. used to form the third-person singular (also used with usted) present indicative mood of regular -ar verbs
    hablar ("to talk") + ‎-a -> ‎habla ("talks")

Etymology 3

From Latin -eam, Latin -am, and Latin -iam the first-person singular present active subjunctive endings of second, third, and fourth conjugation verbs, respectively; and from Latin -eat, Latin -at, and Latin -iat, the third-person singular present active subjunctive ending of second, third, and fourth conjugation verbs, respectively.

Suffix

-a

  1. used to form the first and third-person singular (also used with usted) singular present subjunctive mood of -er and -ir verbs, also used for the imperative mood of usted
    comer ("to eat") + ‎-a -> ‎aunque yo coma ("even if I ate")
    salir ("to leave") + ‎-a -> ‎por favor, salga Ud. ("please leave") (formal)

Etymology 4

From Latin -? (second-person singular present active imperative ending of first conjugation verbs).

Suffix

-a

  1. used to form the second-person singular imperative mood of -ar verbs
    hablar ("to talk") + ‎-a -> ‎¡Habla! ("Talk!")

Derived terms


Swedish

Etymology

From Old Swedish -a, from Old Norse -a, from Proto-Germanic *-?n?.

Suffix

-a

  1. (on a positive adjective) Suffix to mark that the corresponding noun is either in plural or in definite singular form.
  2. Marker of definiteness for noun plurals ending in -n (fourth declension).
    läten ("sounds") + ‎-a -> ‎lätena ("the sounds")
  3. A verb-building suffix that can be added to noun or adjectives.
    disk ("dishes") + ‎-a -> ‎diska ("do the dishes")
    mjölk ("milk") + ‎-a -> ‎mjölka ("to milk")
    öl ("beer") + ‎-a -> ‎öla ("to drink beer")
  4. Create a noun from a numeral.
    tre ("three") + ‎-a -> ‎trea ("a bronze medalist; a three-room apartment", literally "a three")
  5. Transform an adjective describing a people speaking a language into the noun for that language.
    engelsk ("English") + ‎-a -> ‎engelska ("the English language")

Usage notes

On adjectives
Traditionally, if the noun is in the definite singular form it should not refer to a male human if it uses the suffix -a. If it refers to such a person, the suffix should instead be -e, but one should note that this rule is not universally adhered to – in particular dialects of northern Sweden do not recognize the -e suffix at all, but use -a in all instances.

Conjugation

For weak verbs with a voiceless ending stem
For weak verbs with a voiced ending stem

Derived terms



Tokelauan

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

From Proto-Polynesian *-a. Cognates include Tuvaluan -a and Samoan -a.

Suffix

-a

  1. Creates a verb denoting an abundancy of the suffixed noun; -ful
    aiha ("ice") -> aih? ("to be icy")
    manava ("belly") -> manav? ("to be big-bellied")
Derived terms


Etymology 2

Suffix

-a

  1. Added to transitive verbs when preceded by the subject pronoun.

References

  • R. Simona, editor (1986) Tokelau Dictionary[7], Auckland: Office of Tokelau Affairs, page 1

Turkish

Alternative forms

  • -ya, -ye (after a vowel)
  • -na, -ne (after a possessive, dative only)
  • -e (in words with front vowel harmony)

Suffix

-a (in words with back vowel harmony)

  1. Used to form the dative case
    ?stanbul + ‎-a -> ‎?stanbul'a ("to Istanbul")
    Ankara + ‎-a -> ‎Ankara'ya ("to Ankara")
    ?zmir + ‎-a -> ‎?zmir'e ("to Izmir")
    babas? + ‎-a -> ‎babas?na ("to his father")
  2. Used to form gerunds
    yürü + ‎-a -> ‎yürüye ("by walking")

Volapük

Suffix

-a

  1. A morpheme used to mark the genitive singular of a word (such as a noun, adjective or pronoun). It is also the most common morpheme used in creating innumerable compound words, some of which can be very long
    pledadinaselidöp - toy store, toy shop
    tanoganilamedin - antibiotic
    taglumaladälamedin - anti-depressant
    natrinakarbatazüd telik - bicarbonate of soda
    Elaf Tyrannosaurus rex älifon in taledadil, kel nu binon dil Nolüda-Meropa.
    Tyrannosaurus rex lived in an area of the earth, which is now a part of North America.
    Buks binons stumem lärnazilana (/ lärnazilanastumem / stumem lärnazilanik).
    Books are a scholar's tools.

Walloon

Etymology

Inherited from Latin -?culum.

Suffix

-a

  1. Forming masculine nouns from verbs and nouns, having the sense of 'tool, object for a specific purpose'.

Derived terms



Welsh

Alternative forms

  • -af (colloquial first-person singular future)

Pronunciation

Suffix

-a

  1. (literary) verb suffix for the third-person singular present indicative/future
  2. (literary) verb suffix for the second-person singular present imperative
  3. (colloquial) verb suffix for the first-person singular future
  4. (colloquial) verb suffix for the second-person singular present imperative

Derived terms


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