-a
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-a

English

Etymology 1

From the homographic case endings of the nominative, accusative, and vocative forms of numerous Latin neuter second declension nouns.

Pronunciation

Suffix

-a

  1. plural of -um
  2. plural of -on
Usage notes
  • Whereas the regular pluralization in English involves adding -s or -es, English words derived from a Latin/Greek etymon where the Latin/Greek would pluralize from -on (Greek) or -um (Latin) to -a do not always do so. Usage of -a instead of -s differs between words: sometimes the two are interchangeable (e.g. memorandums/memoranda, polyhedrons/polyhedra), sometimes one is far more common than the other (e.g. neurons over neura, automata over automatons), and sometimes one is completely absent from usage (e.g. bacteria over bacteriums, dendrons over dendra)
Derived terms
From -um
From -on
Translations
See also

Etymology 2

Possibly due to the propensity in some non-rhotic dialects to pronounce words ending in -er as if they ended in an -a.

Pronunciation

Suffix

-a

  1. (Northern England) Same as -er in Standard English.
    me fatha was a corka burna doon the shipyard -- "My father was a corker burner at the shipyard."
  2. (African-American Vernacular English and other non-rhotic North American dialects) Used to replace -er in nouns.
    gangsta -- "gangster"
    brotha -- "brother"
See also

Etymology 3

Representing the nominative singular case ending of Latin first-declension feminine nouns.

Pronunciation

Suffix

-a (plural -ae or )

  1. Marks singular nouns, with a foundation in Greek or Latin, often implying femininity, especially when contrasted with words terminating in -us.
    Synonyms: -ess, -ette, -rix, she-
Derived terms

Etymology 4

From Latin -a.

Pronunciation

Suffix

-a

  1. Changes an element or substance into an oxide.
    magnesia

Etymology 5

Shortened version of verb have.

Pronunciation

Suffix

-a

  1. (slang) Alternative form of 've
    who'da thunk it?
    shoulda, coulda, woulda

Etymology 6

Representing Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish feminine nouns.

Pronunciation

Suffix

-a

  1. Marks nouns, with a foundation in Italian, Spanish, or Portuguese, implying femininity.

Etymology 7

Added to lines of poetry and verse to maintain metrics.

Pronunciation

Suffix

-a

  1. Added for metrical reasons to poetry and verse

Etymology 8

Shortened version of preposition of.

Pronunciation

Suffix

-a

  1. (slang) clitic form of o' (contraction of of)
    lotta, loadsa, cuppa, kinda, sorta

Etymology 9

Shortened version of verb to.

Pronunciation

Suffix

-a

  1. (informal) to (infinitive marker)
    oughta, wanna, gotta, gonna

References

  • "-a" in Christine A. Lindberg, editor, The Oxford College Dictionary, 2nd edition, New York, N.Y.: Spark Publishing, 2002, ->ISBN, page 1.

Albanian

Pronunciation

Etymology

Related to Albanian e ("of, the, to") and -e.

Article

-a f

  1. feminine singular nominative suffixed definite article: the
    ditë ("day") + ‎-a -> ‎dita ("the day")
    natë ("night") + ‎-a -> ‎nata ("the night")

Related terms


Czech

Pronunciation

Suffix

-a

  1. Forms agent nouns.
    radit + ‎-a -> ‎rada
  2. Forms nouns referring to results of processes.
    naladit + ‎-a -> ‎nálada

Derived terms


Further reading


Dutch

Suffix

-a

  1. Plural form of -um
    Synonym: -ums
  2. feminine equivalent of -us

Esperanto

Etymology

From feminine singular adjectives (and nouns) of the Romance languages, such as French ma, Italian mia, Spanish mía, fría.

Suffix

-a

  1. Related to, in the manner of, of. Ending for all adjectives in Esperanto.
    belo ("beauty") + ‎-a -> ‎bela ("beautiful")
    dekstro ("the right direction (as opposed to left)") + ‎-a -> ‎dekstra ("to the right")
    vero ("truth") + ‎-a -> ‎vera ("true")
  2. Belonging to, of. Ending for all possessive pronouns in Esperanto.
    mi ("I; me") + ‎-a -> ‎mia ("of me, my")
    vi ("you") + ‎-a -> ‎via ("of you, your")
    ili ("they; them") + ‎-a -> ‎ilia ("of them, their")
  3. -kind of. Ending of all correlatives of kind in Esperanto.
    ki- + ‎-a -> ‎kia ("what kind of")
    ti- + ‎-a -> ‎tia ("that kind of")
    neni- + ‎-a -> ‎nenia ("no kind of")

Derived terms

Ending for all adjectives.
Ending for all possessive pronouns in Esperanto.
Ending of all correlatives of kind in Esperanto.

Finnish

Alternative forms

  • (in words with front vowel harmony)

Etymology 1

From Proto-Finnic *-da, from the Proto-Uralic ablative case *-ta. A variant form *-ta (whence Finnish -ta) was used after a syllable with secondary stress (suffixal gradation).

Suffix

-a (front vowel harmony variant )

  1. (case suffix) Forms the partitive case of nouns, adjectives, numbers and some pronouns.

Usage notes

  • This suffix is used after a short vowel or the plural marker -j-.

Etymology 2

From Proto-Finnic *-dak. Historically, a form of a lative suffix.

Suffix

-a (front vowel harmony variant )

  1. (verbal suffix) Forms the short form of the first infinitive of verbs.

Usage notes

  • The first infinitive, short form, is the citation form of verbs.

See also


French

Suffix

-a

  1. Suffix indicating the third-person singular past historic of -er verbs.

Hungarian

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): [?]
  • (file)

Etymology 1

Suffix

-a

  1. (possessive suffix) his, her, its, -'s, of (third-person singular, single possession)
    ház ("house") -> a háza ("his/her/its house")
    ház ("house") -> Anna háza ("Anna's house")
    ház ("house") -> a felkel? nap háza ("the house of the rising sun")
  2. (possessive suffix, after a plural possessor) -s', of...-s (third-person plural, single possession)
    ház ("house") -> a szüleim háza ("my parents' house")
    ház ("house") -> a trópusi növények háza ("the house of tropical plants" [literally, "the tropical plants' house"])
  3. (with time expressions, referring to a point in time) ago
    Egy évszázada ment el. - S/he left one century ago.
    Synonym: -val/-vel ezel?tt (e.g. egy évszázaddal ezel?tt ["-val" assimilated to "-dal"])
  4. (with time expressions, referring to a duration of time preceding the point of time in question) for
    Egy évszázada várunk rád. - We have been waiting for you for a century.
Usage notes
  • (possessive suffix) Variants:
    -a is added to back vowel words ending in a consonant
    -e is added to front vowel words ending in a consonant
    -ja is added to back vowel words ending in a consonant or a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-; final -o changes to -ó-.
    -je is added to front vowel words ending in a consonant or a vowel. Final -e changes to -é-; final changes to -?-.
    • This suffix (in all forms) is normally used for the third-person singular possessive (single possession) but, after an explicit plural possessor, it also expresses the third-person plural possessive (single possession), e.g. "the children's ball" (a gyerekek labdája). If the possessor is implicit (not named, only marked by a suffix), the plural possessive suffix must be used, e.g. "their ball" (a labdájuk, see -juk and its variants).
Declension
Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative -a
accusative -át
dative -ának
instrumental -ával
causal-final -áért
translative -ává
terminative -áig
essive-formal -aként
essive-modal -ául
inessive -ában
superessive -án
adessive -ánál
illative -ába
sublative -ára
allative -ához
elative -ából
delative -áról
ablative -ától
non-attributive
possessive - singular
-áé
non-attributive
possessive - plural
-áéi

See also

Etymology 2

Suffix

-a

  1. (personal suffix, archaic) Used to form an archaic past tense, in third-person singular, indefinite conjugation, for back-vowel verbs. The front-vowel version is -e. The suffix currently used in this place is -t, -tt, or -ott. For the full paradigm, see the usage template.

Icelandic

Suffix

-a

  1. Used to form verbs from nouns.
    spark ("a kick") + ‎-a -> ‎sparka ("to kick")
    mjólk ("milk") + ‎-a -> ‎mjólka ("to milk")
    von ("hope") + ‎-a -> ‎vona ("to hope")
    ávarp ("an address") + ‎-a -> ‎ávarpa ("to address")
    rit ("a writ") + ‎-a -> ‎rita ("to write")
    rass ("an ass") + ‎-a -> ‎rassa ("to spank (on the ass)")
  2. Used to form adverbs from adjectives.
    illur ("bad") + ‎-a -> ‎illa ("badly")

Derived terms

See also


Ido

Suffix

-a

  1. suffix denoting adjective.
    arjento ("silver (noun)") + ‎-a -> ‎arjenta ("silver (adjective)")

Derived terms


Usage notes

One may elide the final a of the adjectives, but with the condition not to produce accumulation from the consonants. One advise to use the elision mainly with the derivatived adjectives and particularly when they finish with -al-(a).[1]

References

  1. ^ "KGD", in Kompleta gramatiko detaloza[1] (in Ido), accessed 2015-12-23, archived from the original on 27 January 2012

Irish

Suffix

-a

  1. plural ending of certain nouns
  2. plural ending of adjectives in the nominative, vocative, dative, and strong genitive cases
  3. genitive singular ending of third-declension nouns

Italian

Suffix

-a

  1. Used, with a stem, to form the third-person singular present tense of -are verbs.
  2. Used, with a stem, to form the second-person singular imperative of -are verbs.
  3. Used, with a stem, to form the first-person singular, second-person singular and third-person singular present subjunctive of -ere verbs, and of those -ire verbs that do not insert "isc".
  4. Used, with a stem, to form the third-person singular imperative of -ere verbs, and of those -ire verbs that do not insert "isc".

Latin

Etymology 1

From Proto-Italic *-?, from Proto-Indo-European *-eh? (forming in this case masculine nouns).

Pronunciation

Suffix

-a f or m (genitive -ae); first declension

  1. suffixed to the roots of verbs, forms (usually masculine) agent nouns
    adveni? + ‎-a -> ‎advena
    caed? + ‎-a -> ‎-c?da
    col? + ‎-a -> ‎-cola
    c?nferve? + ‎-a -> ‎c?nferva f
    c?nsolid? + ‎-a -> ‎c?nsolida f
    scr?b? + ‎-a -> ‎scr?ba
Declension

First-declension noun.

Synonyms
  • (suffixed to the roots of verbs, forms masculine agent nouns): -?¹
Derived terms


References

Etymology 2

From Old Latin -?d, originally the ablative feminine singular form of first-declension adjectives (compare -us, suffix forming adjectives).

Pronunciation

Suffix

-? (not comparable)

  1. suffixed chiefly to the stems of adjectives terminating in -ter, forms adverbs which are frequently also used as prepositions
    cis + -? -> citr?
    exter + -? -> extr?
    in- + -ter + -? -> intr?
    uls + -? -> ultr?
Derived terms


References

Etymology 3

Declined forms of -us (suffix forming adjectives).

Pronunciation

Suffix

-a

  1. inflection of -us:
    1. nominative/vocative feminine singular
    2. nominative/accusative/vocative neuter plural

Suffix

-?

  1. ablative feminine singular of -us

Etymology 4

A conjugated form of -?³ (suffix forming verbs).

Pronunciation

Suffix

-?

  1. second-person singular present active imperative of -?

Latvian

Suffix

-a

  1. Used to derive feminine nouns from masculine nouns (like English -ess).
    Synonym: -e

Derived terms


Related terms

Feminine suffixes that include -a

Maltese

Alternative forms

  • -ja (used after -i, -j; also another ending of different origin)
  • -wa (used after -u, -w)

Etymology

From Arabic ?(-a(h)), reinforced by Sicilian and Italian -a, which are unrelated but used similarly.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /a/
  • Homophone: -ha (distinct after -h, -?, -g?; may also trigger different stem alternations)

Suffix

-a

  1. Used to form the feminine forms of most nouns and adjectives.
  2. Used to form the plurals of some nouns and adjectives.
  3. Used to form singulatives from collective nouns. (For simplicity, singulatives may be treated as the bases whence the collectives are formed by deleting -a.)

Northern Sami

Etymology

From Proto-Samic *-ëk. Cognate with Finnish -e.

Pronunciation

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Suffix

-a (with odd-syllable stems -at)

  1. Forms nouns from verbs, indicating something used for performing the verb.
    loavdit ("to cover the tent") + ‎-a -> ‎loavdda ("tent cloth")
  2. Forms nouns from verbs, indicating something that results from having the verb's action performed.
    ?állit ("to write") + ‎-a -> ‎?ála ("writing")

Usage notes

This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable in the nominative singular and essive, and the strong grade in the other forms.

Inflection

Odd, no gradation
Nominative -at
Genitive -aga
Singular Plural
Nominative -at -agat
Accusative -aga -agiid
Genitive -aga -agiid
Illative -agii -agiidda
Locative -agis -agiin
Comitative -agiin -agiiguin
Essive -agin
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person -agan -ageam? -ageam?t
2nd person -agat -ageatt? -ageatt?t
3rd person -agis -ageaskk? -ageas?t

Derived terms



Norwegian Nynorsk

Suffix

-a

  1. Used to form infinitive form of most verbs
  2. Used to form imperative form of many weak verbs
  3. Used to form past tense form of many weak verbs
  4. Used to form past participle of many weak verbs
  5. Used for every singular and plural form of the adjectives formed from participle forms of many verbs
  6. Used to form singular indefinite feminine form of some pronouns and adjectives
  7. Used to form singular definite form of feminine nouns
  8. Used to form plural definite form of neuter nouns
  9. Used to form singular indefinite and definite form of weak neuter nouns
  10. (non-standard since 2012) Used to form singular indefinite form of weak feminine nouns
  11. (archaic)(nonstandard) Used to form dative case of singular definite weak masculine and neuter nouns
  12. (archaic)(nonstandard) Used to form singular definite and plural indefinite feminine form of adjectives

Old English

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

From Proto-Germanic *-ô.

Alternative forms

Suffix

-a

  1. Ending forming adverbs
    hwær + ‎-a -> ‎hw?ra ("where")
    ?il?co - similarly
    singal ("continuous") + ‎-a -> ‎singala ("continually, constantly")

Etymology 2

From Proto-Germanic *-ô. Cognate with Old High German -o.

Suffix

-a

  1. nominative masculine n-stem ending
    nama - name
    ;
    sc?a - shadow
  2. used to form masculine agents from verbs
    huntian ("to hunt") + ‎-a -> ‎hunta ("hunter")
    etan ("to eat") + ‎-a -> ‎?ta ("eater")
    ?iefan ("to give") + ‎-a -> ‎?iefa ("giver")
    b?odan ("to announce") + ‎-a -> ‎boda ("bode")
    witan ("to know") + ‎-a -> ‎wita ("wise man")
Declension
Derived terms


Descendants
  • Middle English: -e

Old Norse

Etymology 1

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Alternative forms

Suffix

-a

  1. indicates negation; does not

Etymology 2

From Proto-Germanic *-?n?.

Suffix

-a

  1. Creates denominative verbs from nouns
  2. Creates factitive verbs from adjectives
Conjugation
Derived terms

Descendants

  • Icelandic: -a
  • Faroese: -a
  • Norwegian:
    Norwegian Nynorsk: -e
    Norwegian Nynorsk: -a
  • Swedish: -a
  • Danish: -e

Etymology 3

From Proto-Germanic *-ê and *-ô.

Suffix

-a

  1. Used to make adverbs from adjectives
    gjarn -> gjarna

Etymology 4

From Proto-Germanic *-? or *-ô.

Suffix

-a f or n

  1. Occurs in the nominative singular of feminine on-stem nouns
  2. Occurs in the singular of neuter an-stem nouns
Declension

Etymology 5

Different noun forms.

Suffix

-a

  1. indefinite genitive plural (of nouns)
  2. inflection of -i (masculine an-stem nouns):
    1. indefinite oblique singular
    2. indefinite accusative plural
  3. indefinite accusative plural of -r (masculine a-stem nouns)

Portuguese

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

From Old Portuguese -a, from Latin -am, accusative singular of -a.

Suffix

-a f

  1. forms feminine nouns and adjectives
    Uruguai ("Uruguay") + ‎-a -> ‎uruguaia ("woman from Uruguay")

Etymology 2

From Old Portuguese -a, from Latin -at.

Suffix

-a

  1. forms the third-person singular present indicative of verbs ending in -ar
    João fala português.
    John speaks Portuguese.

Etymology 3

From Old Portuguese -a, from Latin -?.

Suffix

-a

  1. forms the second-person singular affirmative imperative of verbs ending in -ar
    João, conta-nos o seu apelido.
    John, tell us your last name.

Etymology 4

Suffix

-a

  1. forms the first-person singular present subjunctive of verbs ending in -er and -ir
    É importante que eu coma carne.
    It is important that I eat meat.
  2. forms the third-person singular present subjunctive of verbs ending in -er and -ir
    É importante que ele coma carne.
    It is important that he eat meat.
  3. forms the third-person singular affirmative imperative of verbs ending in -er and -ir
    Ei você aí, coma carne.
    Hey you there, eat meat.
  4. forms the third-person singular negative imperative of verbs ending in -er and -ir
    Ei você aí, não coma carne.
    Hey you there, don't eat meat.
Usage notes

The third-person imperative isn't used with third person pronouns, it's used with você, which is a second-person pronoun but always takes third-person conjugation.

Etymology 5

Suffix

-a

  1. (slang) used in the end of shortenings
    vestibular + ‎-a -> ‎vestiba ("university admittance test")
    vagabundo + ‎-a -> ‎vagaba ("loafer")

Romanian

Alternative forms

  • -ua (used for feminine nouns ending in a stressed vowel or diphthong)

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

From Latin illa, nominative feminine singular of ille.

Suffix

-a f

  1. (definite article) the (feminine singular, nominative and accusative)
Usage notes

This form of the definite article is used for feminine nouns in the nominative and accusative cases which end in -? or in an unstressed vowel:

The suffix is also used with feminine adjectives in the nominative and accusative cases to make the articulated definite form, often for emphasis, and it is used before the noun it modifies:

Related terms
  • -l (masculine/neuter singular nominative and accusative)
  • -i (masculine/neuter plural nominative and accusative)
  • -le (feminine plural nominative and accusative)
  • -lui (masculine/neuter singular genitive and dative)
  • -ei (feminine singular genitive and dative)
  • -lor (plural genitive and dative)

Etymology 2

From Latin -?re, the ending of the present active infinitive form of first conjugation verbs. Cognate with Spanish -ar, French -er, Italian -are, etc.

Suffix

-a

  1. A suffix forming infinitives of many verbs.
Related terms

See also


Serbo-Croatian

Etymology 1

Suffix

-a (Cyrillic spelling -?)

  1. Suffix appended to words (usually verbal stems) to create a feminine noun, usually denoting a relation or to form a proper noun.

Etymology 2

From Proto-Slavic *-a, from Proto-Indo-European *-?d, the thematic ablative ending.

Suffix

-a (Cyrillic spelling -?)

  1. Forms the genitive singular of masculine and neuter nouns and indefinite adjectives.

Slovak

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Proto-Slavic *-?.

Suffix

-a n

  1. Forms nouns for young animals and other diminutives.

Declension

Usage notes

  • After labio-dental and bilabial consonants is used instead.

Spanish

Etymology 1

From Latin -a.

Suffix

-a

  1. -ess. (Used to form feminine singular nouns.)
    señor; señora -- "gentleman; lady"
    camarero; camarera -- "waitor; waitress"
  2. (Used to form the feminine singular adjectives.)
    frío; fría -- "cold; cold"

Derived terms

Etymology 2

From Latin -at, the third-person singular present active indicative ending of first conjugation verbs.

Suffix

-a

  1. -s. (Used to form the third-person singular (also used with usted) present indicative mood of regular -ar verbs.)
    hablar; habla -- "to talk; talks"

Derived terms

Etymology 3

From Latin -eam, Latin -am, and Latin -iam the first-person singular present active subjunctive endings of second, third, and fourth conjugation verbs, respectively; and from Latin -eat, Latin -at, and Latin -iat, the third-person singular present active subjunctive ending of second, third, and fourth conjugation verbs, respectively.

Suffix

-a

  1. (Used to form the first and third-person singular (also used with usted) singular present subjunctive mood of -er and -ir verbs, also used for the imperative mood of usted.)
    comer; aunque yo coma -- "to eat; even if I ate"; salir; por favor, salga Ud. -- "to leave; please leave (formal)"

Derived terms

Etymology 4

From Latin -?, the second-person singular present active imperative ending of first conjugation verbs.

Suffix

-a

  1. Used to form the second-person singular imperative mood of -ar verbs.
    hablar ("to talk") + ‎-a -> ‎¡Habla! ("Talk!")

Derived terms


Swedish

Etymology

From Old Norse -a, from Proto-Germanic *-?n?.

Suffix

-a

  1. (on a positive adjective) Suffix to mark that the corresponding noun is either in plural or in definite singular form.
  2. Marker of definiteness for noun plurals ending in -n (fourth declension).
    läten ("sounds") + ‎-a -> ‎lätena ("the sounds")
  3. A verb-building suffix that can be added to noun or adjectives.
    disk ("dishes") + ‎-a -> ‎diska ("do the dishes")
    mjölk ("milk") + ‎-a -> ‎mjölka ("to milk")
    öl ("beer") + ‎-a -> ‎öla ("to drink beer")
  4. Create a noun from a numeral.
    tre ("three") + ‎-a -> ‎trea ("a bronze medalist; a three-room apartment", literally "a three")

Usage notes

On adjectives 
Traditionally, if the noun is in definite singular form it should not refer to a male human, if it uses the suffix -a. If it refers to such a person, the suffix should instead be -e, but one should note that this rule is not universally adhered to - in particular dialects of northern Sweden does not recognize the -e suffix at all, but use -a in all instances.

Conjugation

For weak verbs with a voiceless ending stem
For weak verbs with a voiced ending stem

Derived terms



Turkish

Alternative forms

  • (after a vowel) -ya, -ye
  • (after a possessive, dative only) -na, -ne
  • (in words with front vowel harmony) -e

Suffix

-a (in words with back vowel harmony)

  1. Used to form the dative case.
    ?stanbul'a -- "to Istanbul"
    Ankara'ya -- "to Ankara"
    ?zmir'e -- "to Izmir"
    babas?na -- "to his father"
  2. Used to form gerunds.
    yürüye -- "by walking"

Volapük

Suffix

-a

  1. A morpheme used to mark the genitive singular of a word (such as a noun, adjective or pronoun). It is also the most common morpheme used in creating innumerable compound words, some of which can be very long (e.g., pledadinaselidöp "toy store, toy shop", tanoganilamedin "antibiotic", taglumaladälamedin "anti-depressant", natrinakarbatazüd telik "bicarbonate of soda").
    Elaf Tyrannosaurus rex älifon in taledadil, kel nu binon dil Nolüda-Meropa.
    Tyrannosaurus rex lived in an area of the earth, which is now a part of North America.
    Buks binons stumem lärnazilana (/ lärnazilanastumem / stumem lärnazilanik).
    Books are a scholar's tools.

Welsh

Alternative forms

  • (colloquial first-person singular future): -af

Pronunciation

Suffix

-a

  1. (literary) verb suffix for the third-person singular present indicative/future
  2. (literary) verb suffix for the second-person singular present imperative
  3. (colloquial) verb suffix for the first-person singular future
  4. (colloquial) verb suffix for the second-person singular present imperative

Derived terms


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

-a
 



 



 
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