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- (key): [n?n]
- Phonetic hangeul: [?]
|Revised Romanization (translit.)?
First attested in the Seokbo sangjeol (? / ?), 1447, as Middle Korean , ? (Yale: non, nun).
? o (neun)
- (semantic) marks the topic of the sentence. (not to be confused with the subject of the sentence)
- (semantic) depending on context, shows contrast with or adds emphasis to the preceding word or phrase in a sentence.
? (neun) is used always after a word (a noun, a noun phrase, or a nominalized verb in ? form) ending in a vowel. Identical in meaning to ? (eun) which occurs after a word ending in a consonant.
- (topic marker): The topic is what is being talked about in the sentence; it is the main point. This, however, is different in meaning from the subject which the predicate directly refers to. The topic and subject may be the same in a sentence.
- maerineun naui chin-guda
- Mary is my friend.
- In this case "Mary" is the topic (and the subject) of this sentence and "is my friend" is the predicate. However, in many cases, the subject and topic are different.
- (Complete form)
? ?? ?? ?.
- I bane inneun haksaengdeureun ttokttokhada.
- The students that are in this class are smart.
- Note the use of the first ?/?: function of ?/? after verbs does not indicate nominative case but the adjectival form of the verb. See Etymology 3 below.
- (Shortened form)
? ? ?.
- I baneun haksaengdeuri ttokttokhada.
- The students in this class are smart.
- Compare the complete and shortened form. Here, the topic/subject distinction is a pseudo-grammatical distinction. All sentences that use both ?/? and ?/? can derive its expletive form as shown above.
- In the shortened form, the topic is "This class" while the subject is "the students".
- In cases like this, the topic can often be thought of as a range, or to what extent the sentence is applicable. In the example above, if "speaking of this class" was removed, the sentence would not be limited to "this class", and would talk about all students in general.
- Grammatically, this phenomenon is explained by the concept of predicate clause; that is, the sentence "? ?" (The students are smart) wholly works as an adjective (This class is 'student-smart.", so to speak).
- (Contrast/emphasis marker): ? (neun), can be placed after most case markers (including ? (ga), ? (reul), ? (e), (ege), (eseo), ? (ro), ? (gwa)) to show contrast between two or more choices or add emphasis to a word or phrase, depending on the context. If used after ? (ga) or ? (reul), the ? (ga) or ? (reul) are deleted leaving only ? (eun).
? ? ?.
- Seoureun han-gugui sudoda.
- Seoul is the capital city of South Korea.
- If ? (eun) is stressed, it might suggest "other cities are not."
- Yeoreumeneun deopda.
- It is hot during the summer.
- If ? (neun) is stressed, it might suggest "during other seasons, it's not."
?? ?? .
- Geuneun na-ege chaegeul jueotda.
- He gave me the book. (He gave the book to me.)
- If ? (neun) is stressed, it might suggest "other people may have not."
- Geuga na-egeneun chaegeul jueotda.
- I'm sure that he gave the book to me, but I'm not certain if he gave it to others as well.
- Geuga na-ege chaegeun jueotda.
- I'm sure that he gave me the book, but I'm not certain if he gave me other things, too.
? /? .
- Geuga na-ege chaegeul jugineun haetda/jugineun jueotda.
- He gave me the book, but I'm uneasy about the way he did. (It was too late/seriously damaged/not the one I wanted/just half of it/etc.)
- ? (eun) (after a consonant)
--? o (--neun-)
- a suffix indicating the present tense, appearing directly after a stem of a verb, ending in a consonant other than ? (l), which is at the end of a declarative or exclamatory sentence or an indirect quotation clause.
- ? (kkaeeonaji anta, "not to awake") -> ? ? ???./??! (Hwanjaga ajikdo kkaeeonaji anneunda./anneun-guna!, "The patient doesn't awake yet.") -> ? ?? ?? ? . (Hwanjaga ajikdo kkaeeonaji anneundaneun mare gaseumi dapdaphaejyeo onda., "Hearing that the patient doesn't awake yet, I'm getting to feel heavy.")
- - (neunda)
- - (neun-guna)
- - (neundaji)
- - (neundanda)
--? o (--neun)
- a present-tense suffix used to turn a verb, or one of two adjectives, (itda, "existing") and (eopda, "not existing"), into a dependent clause
- ?? ?? ?. (Ttari chaegeul ingneunda., "My daughter reads a book.") -> ?? ?? ? (ttari ingneun chaek, "the book that my daughter reads")
- ? ??. (Naega igose sanda., "I live in this place.") -> ?? ? (naega saneun got, "the place I live in")
? ? .
- Woncheoniran muri heulleo naoneun goseul malhanda.
- Fount means something from which water flows.
- ? ? . (Horang-iga dongmurwone itda., "A tiger is in a zoo.") -> ? ?? (dongmurwone inneun horang-i, "a tiger which is in a zoo")
- ? ? ? . (Urineun geugose gal su eopda., "We can't go to the place.") -> ? ? ?? (urineun gal su eomneun geugot, "the place we can't go to")
- ?? . (Bameul geonneun seonbi., "A Scholar walks during the night.")
The suffix -? (neun) is appended directly to the stem of the verb. If the stem ends in a consonant ? (l), the consonant ? (l) drops out.
- E.g. (igida, "to win") -> ? ? (igineun nom, "the one who wins")
- (eolda, "to freeze") -> ?? ? (eoneun jeom, "freezing point")
? o (neun)
- A Hangul syllabic block made up of ?, ?, and ?.