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See also: ?

Translingual

Stroke order
?-order.gif
Stroke order
(Hong Kong)
?-horder.gif

Han character

? (radical 187, ?+0, 10 strokes, cangjie input ? (SQSF), four-corner 71327, composition ?????)

  1. Kangxi radical #187, ?.

Derived characters

Related characters

References

  • KangXi: page 1433, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 44572
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1956, character 34
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4539, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+99AC

Chinese

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character ?
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming) Libian (compiled in Qing)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Shizhoupian script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts Clerical script
?-bronze-shang.svg ?-oracle.svg ?-bronze.svg ?-bronze-spring.svg ?-bronze-warring.svg ?-silk.svg ?-slip.svg ?-zhou.svg ?-ancient.svg ?-seal.svg ?-bigseal.svg ?-clerical.svg

Pictogram () - a horse with its head facing the left, showing a flowing mane in the wind. In the bronze inscriptions, the head was often simplified into an eye (?). The legs eventually evolved into four dots (?, unrelated to ?).

Contrast with ? ("deer"), which saw a very different development, and ? (as in ?), which is a hybrid: it has the legs of ? (?) but the head of ?.

Etymology

trad. ?
simp. ?
alternative forms
 
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
? Sichuan senses
?/? "to bully"
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • ? (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • ? (Cantonese)
  • ? (Gan)
  • (Hakka)
  • m? (Min Dong)
  • (Min Nan)
  • ? (Wu)

"Horse" - from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *k-m-ra? ~ s-ra?. The sense of "big" is derived from "horse"; compare the English uses of horse.

For the insect prefix sense, see ?. It has converged with the sense of "big".

The surname is popularly known to be prevalent among Hui Muslims, where it is likely derived from Arabic (mu?ammad, "Muhammad").

Pronunciation

Definitions

?

  1. horse (Classifier: ? m; ?/? m c)
  2. horse-shaped
  3. (chess) knight
  4. (xiangqi) knight; horse (on the black side)
  5. Original form of ?/? (m?, "chip for counting").
  6. big (prefix for nouns)
    ?? / ??  -  m?sháo  -  ladle (big spoon)
  7. (Southwestern Mandarin, including Sichuan) to bully
  8. (Sichuan) to keep a straight face
  9. Prefix for names of insects, also written as ?.
  10. Short for / (M?z?).
  11. Short for ?/? (M?láix?yà).
  12. A surname​.
    ??? / ???  -  M? Y?ngji?  -  Ma Ying-jeou (President of the Republic of China (Taiwan), 2008-2016)
  13. (~?) Ma (a village in Dongsong, Luoning, Luoyang, Henan, China)

Synonyms

Coordinate terms

Compounds

Descendants

Sino-Xenic (?):
  • -> Japanese:? (?) (ba)
  • -> Korean:? (?, ma)
  • -> Vietnamese: (?, "(xiangqi) horse; (chess) knight")

Others:

  • -> Tai: *ma:? ("horse")
    • Bouyei: max ("horse")
    • Lao: (m?, "horse")
    • Lü: (maa2)
    • Shan: (mâ?a, "horse")
    • Thai: (máa, "horse")
    • Zhuang: max ("horse")
  • -> Thai: (bée, "horse")(via Teochew)

References


Japanese

Kanji

Stroke order (Japan)
10 strokes
?

(grade 2 "Ky?iku" kanji)

  1. horse

Readings

Compounds

Etymology 1

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
? (uma, muma): a pair of horses.
Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 2
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese.[1] Recorded in the Nihon Shoki as having been brought over from the Korean peninsula kingdom of Baekje, with the earlier reading of ma. The initial m sound was apparently emphasized,[1][2] possibly similar to *mma, becoming then uma or muma, via processes also seen in the word ? (ume, mume, "plum").

The ma sound denoting "horse" is common to a number of languages of central Asia, where horses were first domesticated, suggesting a possible cognate root. Compare Manchu (morin, "horse"), Mongolian ? (mor?, "horse"), Korean ? (mal, "horse"), Mandarin ? (m?, "horse"), and Proto-Indo-European *márkos ("horse") and descendants such as Irish marc ("horse", archaic) or English mare ("female horse"). More at *márkos.

Pronunciation

Noun

? () o (uma) (counter ?)

  1. a horse
  2. (shogi) a promoted bishop
  3. a sawhorse: a four-leg stand made of wood or iron for supporting other materials

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 2
kun'yomi

Shift from uma form, becoming more common starting from the Heian Period. This change later reverted, and muma is now considered obsolete.

Pronunciation

Noun

? () o (muma)

  1. (obsolete) a horse

Etymology 3

Kanji in this term
?
?
Grade: 2
kan'on

From Middle Chinese ? (MC m?aX).

Pronunciation

Affix

? (?) o (ba)

  1. horse
    ? ()? (?)
    keiba
    horse racing

References

  1. ? 1.01.1 1988, () (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), T?ky?: Shogakukan
  2. ? 2.02.1 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN
  3. ^ 1998, NHK (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), T?ky?: NHK, ->ISBN

Korean

Hanja

? (eumhun ? ? (mal ma))
? (eumhun ? ? (seong ma))

  1. horse (in compounds)

Compounds

  • (, macha, "horse-drawn carriage")
  • (, gyeongma, "horserace")

See also

  • ? (mal)

Vietnamese

Han character

?: Hán Vi?t readings: (?(m?c)?(h?)?(thi?t))[1][2][3][4][5]
?: Nôm readings: m?a[1][2][6][4][5][7], [1][2][4][5][7], m?[1][2][3], m?a[6][5][7], m?[1][2], m?[1], ng?a[2]

Etymology 1

From Middle Chinese ? (MC m?aX, "horse").

Noun

? o ()

  1. Hán t? form of ("horse").
  2. Hán t? form of ("(xiangqi) a knight; any piece labeled with ?").
Derived terms

Etymology 2

Adjective

? o (m?a)

  1. Nôm form of m?a ("excessive").

Etymology 3

Verb

? o (m?a)

  1. Nôm form of m?a ("(dialectal) don't").

Etymology 4

Noun

? o (m?)

  1. Nôm form of m? ("tomb; grave").
    • 1916, Nguy?n ?ình Chi?u, L?c Vân Tiên () [Tale of L?c Vân Tiên], lines 921-922:
      ?(ti?u)?(ng)?(ch?ng)?(k?p)?(h?i)?(han)
      ?(n?m)?(l?n)?(bên)?(m?)?(khóc)?(than)?(b?i)?(h?i)
      Before the page has a chance to pay a visit,
      He throws himself down upon the grave, crying, lamenting, fretting.

Etymology 5

Verb

? o (m?)

  1. Nôm form of m? ("to open").

Etymology 6

Noun

? o (ng?a)

  1. Alternative form of ? ("Nôm form of ng?a ("horse").")

References


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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