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See also: ? and ?

Translingual

Stroke order
?-order.gif

Han character

? (radical 182, ?+0, 9 strokes, cangjie input (HNHLI) or (HNMLI), four-corner 77210, composition ???)

Derived characters

Descendants

References

  • KangXi: page 1411, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 43756
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1930, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4480, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+98A8

Chinese

trad. ?
simp. ?
variant forms ?
?
?

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character ?
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
?-oracle.svg ?-bronze.svg ?-silk.svg ?-slip.svg ?-ancient.svg ?-seal.svg ?-bigseal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (, OC *plum, *plums): phonetic ? (OC *bom) + semantic ? ("insects"). Ancient Chinese thought insects appear with wind. (Insects refer to any kind of animal, such as tigers ()).

In the oracle bone script, the character ? (OC *bums, "male fenghuang") was phonetically borrowed to represent ? (OC *plum, *plums). The right part of the bronze inscription of the character consists of phonetic ? (OC *bom) at the top, and three parts depicting the fur on the tail of the male fenghuang at the bottom. Subsequent forms of ? are based on the right part of its bronze inscription, with two of the three threads of "fur" removed for simplification. The ? in the Chu script and Qin script of ? was likely a result of further simplification of the "fur". Shuowen misinterpreted the character ? by associating it with insects. (Li (2012))

Etymology

Possibly from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *bu? ("wind") (STEDT). Velar nasal final -?, restored later in Middle Chinese (Schuessler, 2007), is preserved in cognates like Proto-Central Naga *m-pu?, Jingpho mabung, nbung, Drung nvmbeung.

Pronunciations 1, 2, and 3 are all cognates; with both 2 and 3 evolving from *pr?m-s, exoactive (with causative suffix -s) of *pr?m (Schuessler, 2007). It is unclear how Old Chinese *pr?m is related to Tibetan ? (rlung) and Proto-Tai *C?.l?m?.

Korean (baram) was borrowed from Chinese (Zhao, 2007). This word has a wide range of extended meanings, and interestingly many of these have exact parallels in the Korean borrowed item. Compare Chinese and with Korean ? (baramdung-i).

Cognate with:

  • (OC *p?l ?·rem, "wind god")
  • (OC *p?l?/b?ls ?·rem, "cockroach") (note the preservation of the -r- infix in Old Chinese through disyllabification, also ? (OC *b·ru:m), ? (OC *b·u:m))
  • ? (OC *plum, "mad, insane")
  • ? (OC *plums, "to mock, to advise")
  • ? (OC *bom, *boms, "sail")

The development from Old Chinese to Middle Chinese was irregular, driven by dissimilation of the initial and coda bilabial consonants.

Pronunciation 1

Definitions

?

  1. wind
    • ?? / ??  -  f?ngy?  -  wind and rain; hardships
    • ?? / ??  -  kuángf?ng  -  gale
    • ?? / ??  -  f?ngshu?  -  feng shui
    • ????,?????????,????? [Classical Chinese, trad.]
      ????,?????????,????? [Classical Chinese, simp.]
      From: The Classic of Poetry, circa 11th - 7th centuries BCE, translated based on James Legge's version
      Tuò x? tuò x?, f?ng qí chu? n?. Sh? x? bó x?, chàng y? hé n?. [Pinyin]
      Ye withered leaves! Ye withered leaves! How the wind is blowing you away! O ye uncles, Give us the first note, and we will join in with you.
    • ???,????????,??,?????????,??,????????????????,????????,??? [Classical Chinese, trad.]
      ???,????????,??,?????????,??,????????????????,????????,??? [Classical Chinese, simp.]
      From: The Analects of Confucius, circa 475 - 221 BCE, translated based on James Legge's version
      Q?n bù sh?, j? bù róng. Jiàn qí shu?i zh?, su? xiá, bì biàn. Jiàn mi?n zh? y? g? zh?, su? xiè, bì y? mào. Xi?ng fú zh? shì zh?. Shì fù b?n zh?. Y?u shèngzhuàn, bì biàn sè ér zuò. Xùnléi f?ngliè, bì biàn. [Pinyin]
      In bed, he did not lie like a corpse. At home, he did not put on any formal deportment. When he saw any one in a mourning dress, though it might be an acquaintance, he would change countenance; when he saw any one wearing the cap of full dress, or a blind person, though he might be in his undress, he would salute him in a ceremonious manner. To any person in mourning he bowed forward to the crossbar of his carriage; he bowed in the same way to any one bearing the tables of population. When he was at an entertainment where there was an abundance of provisions set before him, he would change countenance and rise up. On a sudden clap of thunder, or a violent wind, he would change countenance.
  2. +air; atmosphere
  3. +general mood; custom
    • ?? / ??  -  f?ng  -  customs
    • ?? / ??  -  f?ng  -  common practice; atmosphere
    • ??:?!?,??,????,??????,???? [Classical Chinese, trad.]
      ??:"!?,??,????,??????,?????" [Classical Chinese, simp.]
      From: The Book of Documents, circa 7th - 4th centuries BCE
      Wáng yu?: "W?h?! Shu?, sìh?i zh? nèi, xián y?ng zhèn dé, shí n?i f?ng. G?g?ng wéi rén, liáng chén wéi shèng." [Pinyin]
      The king said, "Oh! Yue, that all within the four seas look up to my virtue is owing to you. As his legs and arms form the man, so does a good minister form the sage (king)."
  4. +demeanour
    • ?? / ??  -  f?ngfàn  -  manner
    • ?? / ??  -  f?ng  -  elegance
  5. +cultivation; moralisation
    • ?? / ??  -  f?ngjiào  -  cultivation
  6. style; manner
    • ?? / ??  -  f?ng  -  style
    • ?? / ??  -  wénf?ng  -  writing style
  7. +conduct; discipline
    • ?? / ??  -  f?nghuì  -  favour
    • ?? / ??  -  f?ng  -  standard of behaviour
  8. +power
    • ?? / ??  -  f?ngs?o  -  to sweep
  9. +news; information
    • ?? / ??  -  f?ngsh?ng  -  news
    • ?? / ??  -  f?ngxùn  -  news
    • ?? / ??  -  wénf?ng'érdòng  -  to act at once on hearing the news
  10. +love; affection; to become sexually attracted; to copulate
    • ?? / ??  -  f?ngyuè  -  romance
    • ?? / ??  -  f?ngqíng  -  amorous feelings
    • ? / ?  -  f?ngm?niúbùxiàngjí  -  irrelevant
    • ????,,????,???,??????????,???!,?,???,?,???! [Classical Chinese, trad.]
      ????,,????,???,??????????,???!,?,???,?,???! [Classical Chinese, simp.]
      From: The Book of Documents, circa 7th - 4th centuries BCE
      M? niú qí f?ng, chénqiè b?táo, wù g?n yuè zhú, zh? fù zh?, w? sh?ng lài r?. N?i yuè zhú bù fù, r? zé y?u chángxíng! Wúg?n kòur?ng, yú yuánqiáng, qiè m? niú, yòu chénqiè, r? zé y?u chángxíng! [Pinyin]
      When the horses or cattle are seeking one another, or when your followers, male or female, abscond, presume not to leave the ranks to pursue them. But let them be carefully returned. I will reward you (among the people) who return them according to their value. But if you leave your places to pursue them, or if you who find them do not restore them, you shall be dealt with according to the regular punishments. And let none of you presume to commit any robbery or detain any creature that comes in your way, to jump over enclosures and walls to steal (people's) horses or oxen, or to decoy away their servants or female attendants. If you do so, you shall be dealt with according to the regular punishments.
  11. +dissolute; promiscuous
    • ?? / ??  -  f?ngliú  -  dissolute
    • ?? / ??  -  f?ngs?o  -  flirtatious behaviour
  12. +ungrounded; baseless
    • ?? / ??  -  f?ngyán  -  rumour
    • ?? / ??  -  f?ngyáo  -  ballad song
  13. +Alternative form of ?/? (f?ng, "mad; insane").
    • ?? / ??  -  f?ngf?  -  spirited
    • ?? / ??  -  f?ngbìng  -  psychiatric illness
  14. +(traditional Chinese medicine) One of the causes of diseases in traditional Chinese medicine.
    • ?? / ??  -  zh?ngf?ng  -  stroke
    • ?? / ??  -  f?nghán  -  wind chill
    • ?? / ??  -  f?ngsh?  -  rheumatic
    • ?? / ??  -  tòngf?ng  -  gout
  15. +epilepsy
    • ?? / ??  -  f?ngch?  -  insanity
    • ?? / ??  -  f?ngxuàn  -  epilepsy
  16. A surname​. Feng; Fung

Compounds

Descendants

Sino-Xenic (?):
  • -> Japanese: ? () (f?)
  • -> Korean: ? (?, pung)
  • -> Vietnamese: phong (?)

Pronunciation 2

Definitions

?

  1. + to blow; to fan
  2. + to influence; to reform a misguided person through persuasion
    • ?? / ??  -  f?ngmín  -  to cultivate the masses

Compounds

Pronunciation 3

Definitions

?

  1. +Alternative form of ?/? (f?ng, "to mock; to ridicule; to satire").
  2. +Alternative form of ?/? (f?ng, "to advise in mild tone").
    • ?? / ??  -  f?ngquàn  -  to advise
    • ?? / ??  -  f?ng  -  to advise in mild tone

Japanese

Kanji

?

(grade 2 "Ky?iku" kanji)

  1. wind
  2. custom, influence
  3. transmission
  4. satire
  5. gossip
  6. Alternative spelling of ? (f?): recite
  7. appearance, form, style
  8. taste, charm
  9. poetry, folk song
  10. illness, sickness
  11. drooping

Readings

  • Go-on: ? (fu, J?y?, uncommon); (f?, J?y?)
  • Kan-on: (h?)
  • Kun: (kaze, ?, J?y?); (kaza, ?, J?y?, uncommon); ? (chi, ?); ? (te, ?)
  • Nanori: ? (ka)

Compounds

Etymology 1

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 2
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *kansay.

Derived from combining form kaza + ? (i, ancient nominal particle).

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji kaze)

  1. wind (movement of air)
    ? ()? ()?? (?)??
    Suzushii kaze ga fuku.
    A cool wind blows.
  2. airs
  3. a style
  4. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
Derived terms

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
?
?
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

Shift from Old Japanese ? (​ti), modern chi, found in some compounds.[1]

Affix

? (hiragana ?, r?maji te)

  1. element in compounds related to wind
Derived terms

Etymology 3

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 2
on'yomi

/pu:/ -> /fu:/

From Middle Chinese ? (MC p?u?).

In Old Japanese, this kanji was used to transcribe the (shakuon) kana of ?pu? and ?bu? in the Nihon Shoki (720 CE).

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji f?)

  1. a style
     ()? ()
    Ch?goku-f?
    China-style
    ? ()?? (?)?
    Sonna f? ni ittekurete arigat?.
    Thank you for telling me that.
    (literally, "Thank you for telling me that in that way.")

Etymology 3

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 2
Irregular

/puri/ -> /furi/

From Old Japanese.

The (ren'y?kei, "continuative or stem form") of verb (furu, "to swing").

Pronunciation

Alternative forms

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji furi)

  1. a swing
  2. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
Derived terms

Suffix

? (hiragana , r?maji -furi)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References

  1. ? 1.01.11.21.31.4 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN
  2. ? 2.02.12.22.3 1998, NHK (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), T?ky?: NHK, ->ISBN

Korean

Hanja

? (eumhun ? (baram pung))

  1. Hanja form? of ? ("wind").

Vietnamese

Han character

? (phong, phông)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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