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Translingual

Stroke order
?-order.gif

Han character

? (radical 180, ?+0, 9 strokes, cangjie input (YTA), four-corner 00601, composition ??? or ???)

  1. Kangxi radical #180, ?.

Derived characters

References

  • KangXi: page 1396, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 43265
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1912, character 16
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4495, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+97F3

Chinese

simp. and trad.
?

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character ?
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
?-bronze.svg ?-silk.svg ?-seal.svg ?-bigseal.svg

Ideogram (): ? ("word") with something in ? ("mouth") - sound comes from the mouth.

Pronunciation

Definitions

?

  1. sound; voice; tone
    => ?
  2. news; tidings
  3. (music) pitch; note
  4. (phonetics) pronunciation; syllable
    ??  -  j?ngy?n  -  Beijing pronunciation
    ??  -  cháoy?n  -  Teochew pronunciation
    ?  -  zh?ngg?y?n  -  Middle Chinese pronunciation
    ??  -  f?ngy?n  -  dialectal pronunciation
    ? / ?  -  Yángji?ng y?n  -  Yangjiang pronunciation

Synonyms

  • (sound): / (sh?ngy?n), (literary) / (y?nsh?ng)

Compounds


Japanese

Kanji

?

(grade 1 "Ky?iku" kanji)

  1. sound
  2. timbre
  3. Short for (ongaku): music
  4. speech (phonetics)
  5. Short for (jion): Chinese-derived reading of a kanji
  6. news, tidings

Readings

  • Go-on: (on, J?y?) (on, historical) (omu, ancient)
  • Kan-on: (in, J?y?) (in, historical) (imu, ancient)
  • Kun: (oto, ?, J?y?); ? (to, ?); ? (ne, ?, J?y?)
  • Nanori: ? (o); (ton); (nari); (nene); (non); (hibiki); (riri)

Compounds

Etymology 1

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
on'yomi

*/?i?m/ -> /?m?/ -> /om?/ -> /o?/

From Middle Chinese ? (MC i?m).

Pronunciation

Noun

?() o (on)

  1. sound
  2. (linguistics) speech sound
  3. Short for (on'yomi): the Chinese-derived reading of a kanji
  4. (by extension) reading of a Chinese character outside the Japanese language; rime
  5. Short for (ongaku): music
Derived terms

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
kun'yomi
Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
kun'yomi

?oto2? -> */ot?/ -> /oto/

From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *?t?.

Appears in the late 1400s with the geminate pronunciation /otto/.[3] This reading is very rare, and appears to have fallen out of use.

Pronunciation

Noun

?() o (oto)

  1. a sound
    ? ()?? (?)
    oto o morasu
    to let out a sound
  2. when used with a "hear" verb, a rumor or fame (Can we verify(+) this sense?)
  3. news, tidings
  4. a reply, response
Usage notes

Oto is used for loud sounds and voices, as opposed to ne (see below).

Derived terms

Etymology 3

Kanji in this term
?
?
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

?to2? -> */t?/ -> /to/

The shift from oto above, with the initial o being dropped.

The drop is likely due to haplology with the possessive particle ? (no).

Noun

?(?) o (to)

  1. sound; echo; voice
    • c. 759, Man'y?sh? (book 14, poem 3453), text here
      ? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?) [Man'y?gana]
      ? ()?? (?)?? ()? ()?? (?)? ()? (?)? ()?? (?) [Modern spelling]
      kaze no to no t?ki wagimo ga kiseshi-kinu tamoto no kudari, mayoi-ki ni keri
      My dear wife, far away (as the sound of the wind), some threads of the sleeves of the kimono you made me wear have come to be worn and chafed![5]
Derived terms

Etymology 4

Kanji in this term
?
?
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese.

Alternative forms

Pronunciation

Noun

?(?) o (ne)

  1. a sound, voice
  2. the cry of an animal
Usage notes

Ne is used for relatively soft sounds and voices that appeals to human emotions, as opposed to oto (see above).

Derived terms

Etymology 5

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
kan'on

From Middle Chinese ? (MC i?m).

The kan'on pronunciation, so likely a later borrowing.

Pronunciation

Affix

?() o (in)

  1. (uncommon) Alternative form of ? (on)
    1. sound
      ? (?)? ()?? (?)? () - shiin, boin - (also shion, boon) consonant; vowel
    2. news; tidings; word
      ? ()? () - inshin - (also onshin) message, news

References

  1. ? 1.01.11.2 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN
  2. ? 2.02.12.2 1998, NHK (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), T?ky?: NHK, ->ISBN
  3. ^ 1988, () (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), T?ky?: Shogakukan
  4. ^ 1974, ? (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?
  5. ^ Jan Lodewijk Pierson, Jr. (1964) The Makura-Kotoba of the Manyô?û, Leiden: Brill Archive, page 54

Korean

Hanja

? (eumhun ? (sori eum))

  1. ( ?, sori-): sound
  2. ( ?, sosig-): news
  3. (? ?, mal-): speech
  4. (? ?, eum-): pronunciation
    • ? (? , hunjidae munjadokseong) the complement of the hun (hence) the sound reading a (Chinese) character.

Synonyms

Compounds


Kunigami

Kanji

?

Etymology

From Proto-Ryukyuan *oto, from Proto-Japonic *?t?.

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , romaji fut?)

  1. sound

Okinawan

Kanji

?

(grade 1 "Ky?iku" kanji)

Readings

Etymology

From Proto-Ryukyuan *oto, from Proto-Japonic *?t?.

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji utu)

  1. sound

Vietnamese

Han character

? (âm, ?m, ?m)

  1. sound; noise

Compounds

Usage notes

  • Ch? Nôm. The modern Vietnamese equivalent is âm.

References


Yaeyama

Kanji

?

Etymology

From Proto-Ryukyuan *oto, from Proto-Japonic *?t?.

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , romaji utu)

  1. sound

Yonaguni

Kanji

?

Etymology

From Proto-Ryukyuan *oto, from Proto-Japonic *?t?.

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , romaji utu)

  1. sound

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