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See also: ?, ?, and ?

Translingual

Stroke order
8 strokes
Stroke order
?-order.gif

Alternative forms

  • ?/? (j?n) (when used as a left Chinese radical)

Han character

? (radical 167, ?+0, 8 strokes, cangjie input ? (C), four-corner 80109, composition ?????)

  1. Kangxi radical #167, ?.

Derived characters

References

  • KangXi: page 1295, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 40152
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1795, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 4167, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+91D1

Chinese

simp. and trad.
?
alternative forms ?
?
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • ? (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • ? (Cantonese)
  • ? (Classical)
  • ? (Gan)
  • kîm (Hakka)
  • g?ng (Min Dong)
  • kim (Min Nan)
  • ? (Wu)
Crystals of gold (?)

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character ?
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
?-bronze.svg ?-seal.svg ?-bigseal.svg

Originally referred to copper. Later, the meaning was extended to metal as a whole, and then to gold. Phono-semantic compound (, OC *kr?m): semantic ? ("upside-down axe") + semantic ? ("two blocks of metal") + phonetic ?. ? is the ancient form for ? (OC *kr?m).

Etymology

Starostin reconstructs Proto-Sino-Tibetan *gm ("metal"); compare Tedim Chin xam ("gold") and Lepcha [script needed] (kóm, "silver, coin, money").

"Copper" [prior to 5th B.C.E.] > "metals in general" > "gold".

The main senses now are "gold" and "metal".

Pronunciation

Definitions

?

  1. +copper (Cu)
  2. metal
    ??  -  j?n  -  alloy
  3. metalware
  4. gold (Au)
    ?? / ??  -  j?nsh?  -  metal
    ????? [MSC, trad.]
    ????? [MSC, simp.]
    J?n de yánsè hé huángtóng h?n xi?ngsì. [Pinyin]
    Gold is similar in color to brass.
  5. golden; blond
    ?? / ??  -  j?n  -  blond
    ?????? [MSC, trad.]
    ?????? [MSC, simp.]
    T? bèi ji?nglì le y?kuài j?n bi?o. [Pinyin]
    He received a golden watch as a prize.
  6. (by extension) money; material wealth
    ?? / ??  -  xiànj?n  -  cash
    ?? / ??  -  z?j?n  -  funds
    ?? / ??  -  j?nqián  -  currency
  7. (historical) ancient currency unit
  8. (historical) gong or other metalware for signalling commands in the military
  9. +(figuratively) sun
  10. +(figuratively) moon
  11. +(figuratively) respectful; noble; rich
  12. +(figuratively) impregnable
  13. +(figuratively) imperial
  14. +(figuratively, of voice) beautiful; wonderful
  15. Short for (J?nx?ng, "Venus").
  16. (~?) (historical) The Jurchen Jin dynasty (1115-1234)
  17. (~?, ~?) (historical) Synonym of / (Hòuj?n), the Jurchen Later Jin state (1616-1636)
  18. A surname​.

Synonyms

Compounds

Descendants

Sino-Xenic (?):
  • -> Japanese:?() (kin)
  • -> Korean:? (?, geum); ? (?, gim)
  • -> Vietnamese: kim (?)

Others:

  • -> Bouyei: jiml ("gold")
  • -> Lao: (kham, "gold")
  • -> Thai: (kam, "gold")
  • -> Zhuang: gim ("gold")

References


Japanese

Kanji

?

(grade 1 "Ky?iku" kanji)

Chemical element
Au
Previous: ?()?() (hakkin) (Pt)
Next: ?()?() (suigin) (Hg)
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
? (kane, kugane, kogane, kin): Synthetically produced crystalline gold.
? (kane, kana, kin): Metal in general, such as metal sheeting.
? (kane, kana, kin): Hot metal work from a blacksmith.
  1. gold
  2. metal

Readings

  • Go-on: (kon, J?y?) (kon, historical) (komu, ancient)
  • Kan-on: (kin, J?y?) (kin, historical) (kimu, ancient)
  • Kun: (kana, ?, J?y? +); (kane, ?, J?y?); (kugane, ?); (kogane, ?)
  • Nanori: ? (ka); (kan); (kimu); ? (ko); (kono)

Etymology 1

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. Appears to be the older form of this word. In modern Japanese, only found at the start of compounds.

Pronunciation

Prefix

?() o (kana-

  1. metal
  2. money
  3. firmness, strength
  4. completely, entirely
Derived terms

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. Found in the Man'y?sh?, completed some time after 759 C.E..[1]

Appears to be a fusion of kana + Old Japanese emphatic nominal particle ? (​i). Compare the development of modern kami from kamu + i at ?, te from ta + i at ?, me from ma + i at ?, kaze from kaza + i at ?.

/kana/ + /i/ -> /*kanai/ -> /kane/

The four kanji spellings of this term, ? ("gold"), ? ("silver"), ? ("copper"), and ? ("iron"), hint at the importance of each of these four metals in ancient Japan.

Pronunciation

Alternative forms

Noun

?() o (kane

  1. money
    => (​okane)
  2. metal
Usage notes

The ? spelling is the most common for this term.

Synonyms
Derived terms

Etymology 3

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Compound of ? (ku, "yellow") +‎ ? (kane, "metal"). The ku is a variation of regular kun'yomi of ki for the ? character.[4] The kane changes to gane as an instance of rendaku ().

Pronunciation

Alternative forms

Noun

?() o (kugane

  1. (archaic) gold

Etymology 4

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
kun'yomi

/ku?ane/ -> /ko?ane/

Alteration of kugane[4], possibly influenced by metaphor from (kogane, "a small amount of money"), or by the kan'on reading of k? for the ? character.

Pronunciation

Alternative forms

Noun

?() o (kogane

  1. gold
  2. gold or metal currency: coins, such as (?ban) or (koban)
  3. short for (kogane iro, "gold", the color)
  4. short for ? (kogane no dei, "golden mud", gold dust suspended in an emulsion and used for painting or other decoration)
    => (​kondei)
See also
  • ?(?)?() (kogane): a small amount of money
  • ?()?() (kondei): "golden mud", gold dust suspended in an emulsion and used for painting or other decoration

Etymology 5

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese ? (kim). Compare modern Mandarin ? (j?n).

Pronunciation

Noun

?() o (kin

  1. gold (Au)
  2. money
    ?()?()?()
    Kin ipp? o moratta.
    I received a gift of money.
  3. metal
  4. (shogi) short for (kinsh?): the gold general (a shogi piece)
  5. one of the five classical elements in traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine: see the "Wu Xing" entry on Wikipedia
  6. short for (kin'y?bi): Friday
Usage notes

Often found in compounds.

Derived terms

Proper noun

?() o (Kin

  1. Jin dynasty (1115-1234)

Etymology 6

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese ? (kim).

Pronunciation

Noun

?() o (kon

  1. one of the five classical elements in traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine: see the "Wu Xing" entry on Wikipedia

References

  1. ^ c. 759, Man'y?sh? (book 14, poem 3560), text here
  2. ? 2.02.12.22.3 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN
  3. ? 3.03.13.23.3 1998, NHK (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), T?ky?: NHK, ->ISBN
  4. ? 4.04.1 1988, () (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), T?ky?: Shogakukan

Korean

Etymology 1

From Middle Chinese ? (MC k?i?m).

Historical readings

Pronunciation

Hanja

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

? (eumhun ? ? (soe geum))

  1. Hanja form? of ? ("gold; metal; money").
Compounds

Etymology 2

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation

Hanja

? (eumhun ? ? ? (saramui seong gim))

  1. Hanja form? of ? ("a surname; used in placenames").
Compounds

References

  • ( ) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, ?/?. [1]

Vietnamese

Han character

?: Hán Vi?t readings: kim[1][2][3]
?: Nôm readings: kim[1][2][4], ghim[3][5], câm[2], g?m[3], ghim[4]

  1. Hán t? form of kim ("gold; metal").
  2. Hán t? form of Kim ("A surname​.").
Compounds

References


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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