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See also: ?, ?, ?, and ?


Stroke order
7 strokes
Stroke order

Han character

? (radical 154, ?+0, 7 strokes, cangjie input (BUC), four-corner 60800, composition ???)

  1. Kangxi radical #154, ?.

Derived characters


  • KangXi: page 1204, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 36656
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1665, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3622, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+8C9D


Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character ?
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
?-oracle.svg ?-bronze.svg ?-silk.svg ?-seal.svg ?-bigseal.svg

Pictogram () - cowry.


Cowries were used as money in ancient China (Shell money). Guo (1945) proposes that cowries used by the ancient Chinese dynasties in Central China must have come from the southeastern shores of China and areas further south, as the species of sea snail used as decoration and currency--Monetaria moneta (money cowry)--is not native to the eastern seashores of China. He further proposes that in addition to the cowry itself, the word for cowry, ?, is also an ancient loanword from languages of the south (which call it "bia").

Compare Malay bia ("cowry"), Thai (bîia, "cowry shell; money"), Proto-Mon-Khmer *?a(a)j ("bean, small weight or coin") > Khasi sbâi, 'bâi ("money, cowry, shell"), Khmer (p?y, "obsolete small coin").

Alternatively, Starostin, Matisoff (2003) and Schuessler (2007) relate ? to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *bwap ("snail"), via ? (OC *pa:ds) < *p?ps. If so it would be cognate with Jingpho pawp, lapawp ("snail").




  1. shellfish; cowrie
  2. +money; currency
  3. A surname​.





(grade 1 "Ky?iku" kanji)


  • Go-on: (hai)
  • Kan-on: (hai)
  • Kan'y?-on: (bai)
  • Kun: (kai, ?, J?y?) (kafi, historical)


Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Kanji in this term

Grade: 1

/*kapi1/ -> /ka?i/ -> /kawi/ -> /kai/

From Old Japanese.[1] Found in the Man'y?sh?, completed some time after 759 CE.[2]



? (hiragana , r?maji kai, historical hiragana )

  1. a shellfish

Derived terms


  1. ^ 1988, () (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), T?ky?: Shogakukan
  2. ^ c. 759, Man'y?sh? (book 15, poem 3709), text here
  3. ^ 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN
  4. ^ 1998, NHK (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), T?ky?: NHK, ->ISBN
  5. ^ 1974, ? (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?



? (eumhun ? (jogae pae))

  1. Hanja form? of ? ("clam, shellfish").


Han character

? (b?i, bu?i, bói, búi, v?i, m?y, m?i, vu?i, thói)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

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