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See also: ? and ?

Translingual

Han character

? (radical 130, ?+6, 10 strokes, cangjie input ? (BPUK), four-corner 77220, composition ???)

References

  • KangXi: page 981, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 29442
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1432, character 32
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 2070, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+80F8

Chinese

simp. and trad.
?
variant forms ?
?

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character ?
Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script
?-silk.svg ?-seal.svg

Pronunciation

Definitions

?

  1. chest; thorax
  2. breast; bosom
  3. (figuratively) mind; heart of hearts; thought

Compounds


Japanese

Kanji

?

(grade 6 "Ky?iku" kanji)

Readings

  • Go-on: ? (ku)
  • Kan-on: (ky?, J?y?)
  • Kun: (mune, ?, J?y?); (muna, ?, J?y?, uncommon)

Compounds

Etymology 1

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 6
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. Possibly the original form of mune below.[1]

Cognate with ? (muna, "main roofline, roof ridge"), from the underlying idea of central or main portion.[1]

Possibly also cognate with ?, ? (muna, "emptiness, void"), from the idea of cavity.

Seldom used in isolation even in Old Japanese. Only found as the first element of compounds in modern Japanese.[1][2]

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji muna)

  1. chest, breast
    • 711-712, Kojiki (Kamitsumaki ("First Volume"))
      ? / / ? / ? / ?
      ? / / ? / ? / ?
      nubatama no kuroki mikeshi o / matsubusa ni toriyosohi / oki tsu tori muna miru toki / hatatagi mo kore wa fusawazu / he tsu nami so ni dakiute
      I put on black iris-seed garments with schisandra, and though I fluff up my garments like when the ocean birds look at their chests, I say this is not good and I cast them off into the sea's waves...
  2. heart, inner thoughts
Derived terms

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 6
kun'yomi

Sound shift from muna above, from the fusion of muna with the emphatic nominal particle ? (i): /muna i/ -> /mune/, from Proto-Japonic *munay. Similar to the phonetic process observed in the shift from ? (kamu, "spirit, god", older form used in compounds) to ? (kami, newer form, used as a standalone noun).

Alternatively, may be a compound of ? (mu, "body") +‎ ? (ne, "root").[1]

Cognate with ? (mune, "main roofline, roof ridge") and ?, ? (mune, "gist, main idea, primary part"), from the underlying idea of central or main portion.[1]

Notably, ? and ? also have an older reading muna that is only used in compounds (for ?, possibly only in place names). Meanwhile, ? (mune) appears later in the textual record (in the Uji Sh?i Monogatari of the early 1200s), and this reading is used as a standalone noun rather than in compounds. This is consistent with other nouns that have paired vowel forms, and suggests that muna is probably the original form, and that the compound derivation is a folk etymology.

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji mune)

  1. chest, breast
  2. heart, inner thoughts
    ? ()?? ()?? ()?? ()?
    mune no naka no atsui omoi
    the passion in one's heart
  3. bosom, breasts
     (?)?? ()?? (?)? ()?? (?)? (?)?
    Kanojo wa donna fuku o kite mo mune ga medachimasu.
    No matter what clothes she wears, her chest always stands out.
Derived terms
Synonyms

References

  1. ? 1.01.11.21.31.4 1988, () (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), T?ky?: Shogakukan
  2. ? 2.02.1 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN

Korean

Hanja

? (eumhun ? (gaseum hyung))

  1. Hanja form? of ? ("chest, box").

Vietnamese

Han character

? (hung, hông)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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