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See also: ?

Translingual

Stroke order
?-order.gif

Han character

? (radical 119, ?+0, 6 strokes, cangjie input (FD), four-corner 90904, composition ???(GHJKV) or ?????(T) or ?????(T))

  1. Kangxi radical #119, ?.

Derived characters

References

  • KangXi: page 906, character 31
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 26832
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1331, character 28
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3141, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+7C73

Chinese

simp. and trad.
?
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • ? (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • ? (Cantonese)
  • ? (Classical)
  • m? (Min Dong)
  • (Min Nan)

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character ?
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
?-oracle.svg ?-bronze.svg ?-silk.svg ?-slip.svg ?-seal.svg ?-bigseal.svg

Pictogram () - rice kernels.

Etymology

"uncooked rice; husked seed; etc."
From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ma-j ~ mej ("rice; paddy"). Cognate with Garo mi, Atong (India) mai.
Sagart et al (2019) contended that "There is therefore no linguistic evidence that the ancestral Sino-Tibetans knew rice", despite this set of comparanda: ? (OC C.m?[e]j?) "dehusked grain" and Proto-Bodo-Garo *mai1 ("rice, paddy, cooked rice").
"metre"
Short for (m?t?), from English metre.

Pronunciation

Definitions

?

  1. hulled or husked uncooked rice
  2. husked seed
  3. grain-like things
  4. (chiefly Cantonese) Short for (m?f?n, "rice vermicelli").
    ?  -  X?ngzh?u ch?om?  -  Singapore-style noodles
  5. metre
    ???????  -  W? y?u y? m? ji? g?o.  -  I'm 1.9 metres tall.

Synonyms

Compounds

See also

  • (unit of length): ? (zhàng), ? (ch?), ? (cùn), ? (f?n)

Further reading


Japanese

Kanji

?

(grade 2 "Ky?iku" kanji)

  1. husked rice grains
  2. meter, metre (SI unit of length)
  3. Short for ? (Amerika): America, American, Americas, Americo-
  4. Short for ? (Amerika Gassh?koku): the United States
  5. eighty-eight-year-old

Readings

  • Go-on: (mai, J?y?)
  • Kan-on: (bei, J?y?)
  • Kun: (kome, ?, J?y?); (meme, ?); (yone, ?); ? (m?toru, ?)
  • Nanori: (kon); (takara); (mei)
Compounds

Etymology 1

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 2
kun'yomi

?ko2me2? -> */k?m?j/ -> /kome/

From Old Japanese.

Many theories exist regarding the ultimate derivation:

  • From (​kome), the (ren'y?kei, "stem or continuative form") of verb (komeru, "do with one's heart"), from the way rice is farmed.
  • From Proto-Austronesian *S?may ("cooked rice").[1]

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji kome)

  1. rice (husked grains of the Asian rice plant, Oryza sativa), one of the five grains
    Hypernym: (gokoku)
Derived terms
Proverbs
Coordinate terms
See also

Proper noun

? (hiragana , r?maji Kome)

  1. a female given name
  2. a surname

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 2
kun'yomi

?yo2nai? -> */j?nai/ -> */j?ne/ -> /jone/

First attested in the Wamy? Ruijush? (938 CE).

Possibly from Proto-Japonic *j?naC- (Vovin, 1998)[5] and related to ? (ine, "rice plant").

Unknown "-C-" consonantal segment, reconstructed by Vovin, seems unlikely considering [a ~ e] vowel alternation:

Compare ? (awi -> ai, "indigo") from ? (awo -> ao, "blue") + ? (i, emphatic nominative particle)[6] against /siroi/ from ?siro1ki1?.[7]

The colloquial sense is derived from the components of the ? kanji: ? (hachi, "eight") + ? (j?, "ten") + ? (hachi, "eight").

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji yone)

  1. the Asian rice plant, Oryza sativa
    Synonym: ? (ine)
  2. rice (husked grains of the Asian rice plant, Oryza sativa)
  3. (colloquial) an eighty-eight-year-old
    Synonym: (beiju)
Derived terms

Proper noun

? (hiragana , r?maji Yone)

  1. a female given name
  2. a surname

Etymology 3

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 2
kun'yomi

First attested around the Edo period.

Probably a shortened reduplication of kome (see above). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji meme)

  1. (colloquial) rice (husked grains of the rice plant)

Etymology 4

Kanji in this term
?
?
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

Borrowing from French mètre.[2]

The use of this kanji is attested in the Meiji period and is an example of ateji (), shortened from Mandarin (m?t?), see Chinese section above.

Pronunciation

Noun

? (katakana ?, r?maji m?toru)

  1. Rare spelling of ? (m?toru): meter, metre (SI unit of length)
  2. Rare spelling of ? (m?t?): a device or implement used for measurement
Derived terms
Coordinate terms
See also

References

  • New Nelson: 4380
  • Halpern: 3529
  • Halpern Learners: 2198
  • Heisig: 919
  • Tuttle Kanji Dictionary: 6b0.1
  1. Source: EDICT and KANJIDIC files licensed by the Electronic Dictionaries Research Group.
  1. ^ Sagart, Laurent (2011). "How many independent rice vocabularies in Asia?". In: Sanchez-Mazas, A.; Blench, R.; Ross, M. et al. (eds.), Rice and Language Across Asia: Crops, Movement, and Social Change. New York: Routledge, 1-32.
  2. ? 2.02.12.2 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN
  3. ^ 1974, ? (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?
  4. ^ 1960, Tetsuo Hirayama (?, editor), (Zenkoku Akusento Jiten, "Nationwide Accent Dictionary"), (in Japanese), T?ky?: T?ky?d?, ->ISBN
  5. ^ Whitman, John (2012). "Northeast Asian Linguistic Ecology and the Advent of Rice Agriculture in Korea and Japan, Rice, Volume 4, Issue 3-4, pp 149-158. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12284-011-9080-0
  6. ^ Thomas Pellard (2013). Ryukyuan perspectives on the proto-Japonic vowel system. Frellesvig, Bjarke; Sells, Peter. Japanese/Korean Linguistics 20, CSLI Publications, pp.81-96, 2013.
  7. ^ Hamano, S. "Voicing of Obstruents in Old Japanese: Evidence from the Sound-Symbolic Stratum." Journal of East Asian Linguistics (2000) 9. 3: 207-225. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008367619295

Korean

Hanja

? (eumhun ? ? (ssal mi))

  1. Hanja form? of ? ("rice").

Vietnamese

Han character

?: Hán Vi?t readings: m? (?(m?c)?(l?)?(thi?t))[1][2]
?: Nôm readings: m?[1][2][3][4], [1]

  1. Hán t? form of m? ("rice grains").

Compounds

References


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