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See also: ? and ?


Stroke order
9 strokes
Stroke order

Han character

? (radical 115, ?+4, 9 strokes, cangjie input (HDF), four-corner 29980, composition ???)

Derived characters


  • KangXi: page 850, character 6
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 24940
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1273, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2595, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+79CB


Etymology 1

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Unclear. Schuessler (2007) minimally reconstructed OC *tshiu < Proto-Chinese *C-nh(i)u and proposed its cognacy to either:

? (OC *(n)hiu) "to reap, harvest, gather"; or
? (OC *tsut) "to finish, end, die", as vegetation dies in autumn; additionally in Zuozhuan, this word's referent was winter's dead vegetation.

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character ?
Shang Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
?-bronze-shang.svg ?-oracle.svg ?-silk.svg ?-slip.svg ?-seal.svg ?-bigseal.svg

The oracle bone forms and bronze inscriptions show the pictogram () of a cricket or a locust, sometimes with a fire ? glyph underneath. In its later form, became a Phono-semantic compound (, OC *sw): semantic ? ("rice") + abbreviated phonetic ?. Often thought of as an Ideogrammic compound (): ? ("grain") + ? ("fire"); after harvesting the grain, the fields are burned to kill locusts and their eggs.




  1. autumn; fall
  2. year
  3. period; time
  4. A surname​.
See also
Seasons in Chinese · (sìjì, "four seasons") (layout · text)
? (ch?n, "spring") ? (xià, "summer") ? (qi?, "fall; autumn") ? (d?ng, "winter")


Etymology 2

For pronunciation and definitions of ? - see ? ("tr=-").
(This character, ?, is the simplified form of ?.)




(grade 2 "Ky?iku" kanji)

  1. autumn


  • Go-on: (sh?, J?y?)
  • Kan-on: (sh?, J?y?)
  • Kun: (aki); (toki)
  • Nanori: (ai)



Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Kanji in this term

Grade: 2

?aki1? -> */ak?i/ -> /aki/

From Old Japanese.

Likely cognate with (aki, "bright"), ? (aka, "red"), (akiru, "to become full up", possibly in reference to the harvest), (aku, "to become empty"), (aku, "to open up"). However, the exact relationship of these terms remains unclear.



? (hiragana , r?maji aki)

  1. autumn, fall (season)


Derived terms

See also

Seasons in Japanese · ? (?)? (?) (shiki, "four seasons") (layout · text)
? () (haru, "spring") ? () (natsu, "summer") ? () (aki, "fall; autumn") ? () (fuyu, "winter")


  1. ^ 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN
  2. ^ 2002, ? (A Dictionary of Tone on Words of the Keihan-type Dialects) (in Japanese), T?ky?: Bensei, ->ISBN



? o (chu)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): ? (revised: chu, McCune–Reischauer: ch'u, Yale: chwu)
    • Name (hangeul): ? (Yale: kaulchwu)
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.


Han character

?: Hán Nôm readings: thu

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

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