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See also: ?

Translingual

Stroke order
?-order.gif

Han character

? (radical 112, ?+0, 5 strokes, cangjie input (MR), four-corner 10600, composition ???)

  1. Kangxi radical #112, ?.

Derived characters

References

  • KangXi: page 827, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 24024
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1239, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2416, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+77F3

Chinese

simp. and trad.
?

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character ?
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
?-oracle.svg ?-bronze.svg ?-silk.svg ?-seal.svg ?-bigseal.svg

Pictogram (): a stone beneath a cliff (?). The cliff was subsequently distorted into ?.

Alternatively, a cave set into the side of a cliff or mountain.

Etymology 1

Etymology not certain. Probably related to Proto-Vietic *l-ta:? ("stone") and Khmer (daa, "rock; stone") (Schuessler, 2007), to which Chinese would have added the familiar final -k.

Pronunciation

Definitions

?

  1. stone; rock
  2. A surname​.
    ?? / ??  -  Shí Yáng  -  Shih Yang (a pirate leader who terrorized the China Seas during the early 19th century)

Compounds

Etymology 2

From ?/? (dàn) (Qiu, 1988).

Pronunciation

Definitions

?

  1. + a unit of dry measure for grain (equal to 100 liters)

Compounds

  • /
  • /

Japanese

Kanji

?

(grade 1 "Ky?iku" kanji)

Readings

Compounds

Etymology 1

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
kun'yomi

?isi? -> */?si/ -> /i?i/

From Old Japanese.[1]

Likely cognate with ? (iso, "pebble; gravel; rocky beach").

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji ishi)

  1. a stone
    • 1999 March 27, " [Stone Armadiller]", in Vol.2, Konami:
      ? ()?? ()?? ()?? (?)?? ()? ()
      Karada ga ishi no y? ni katai ke de ?wareteori, mamori ga katai.
      With a body covered in a coat as hard as stones, its defense is solid.
  2. (slang, electronics) a transistor
Derived terms

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
kan'y?on

From Middle Chinese ? (MC ?uk?).

The ? spelling came about through customary use in Japan of this character for the unit of measure.[1]

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji koku)

  1. a traditional Japanese unit of volume:
    1. for grains of rice; one koku is equal to approximately 180 litres
    2. (by extension, historical) for land of famous daimyo or samurai; one koku is also approximately 180 litres
    3. for (wasen); one koku is equal to 10 cubic shaku or approximately 0.278 cubic metres
  2. a unit of quantity for ? (sake, "salmon") and ? (masu, "trout"); one koku is equal to 40 salmons or 60 trouts
Derived terms
Descendants
  • -> English: koku

Etymology 3

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese ? (MC di?k?).

Pronunciation

Counter

? (hiragana , r?maji -seki)

  1. counter for gemstones used as bearings in watches and other devices
  2. (slang, electronics) counter for transistors, especially discrete ones
    ? ()? ()
    rokuseki rajio
    six-transistor radio

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji seki)

  1. Same as (koku) above

Affix

? (hiragana , r?maji seki)

  1. stone
  2. needle made of stone
  3. go stone
  4. something solid but worthless
  5. Short for ? (Iwami-no-kuni): Iwami Province

References

  1. ? 1.01.1 1988, () (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), T?ky?: Shogakukan
  2. ? 2.02.1 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN
  3. ^ 1998, NHK (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), T?ky?: NHK, ->ISBN

Korean

Hanja

? (eumhun ? ? (dol seok))

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Kunigami

Kanji

?

Etymology

Cognate with Japanese ? (ishi).

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , romaji sh?)

  1. stone

Miyako

Kanji

?

Etymology

Cognate with Japanese ? (ishi).

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , romaji isu)

  1. stone

References

  • "" in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Miyako Dialect Dictionary.
  • "" in Celik Kenan Thibault, Online Miyako Dictionary, 2016.

Okinawan

Kanji

?

Etymology

Cognate with Japanese ? (ishi).

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , romaji ishi)

  1. stone

References

  • "" in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary.

Old Japanese

Etymology

Cognate with ? (iso1, "pebble; gravel; rocky beach").

Noun

? (isi) (kana )

  1. a stone
    • c. 759, Man'y?sh? (book 5, poem 869), text here
      ?
      tarasi pi1me1 kami2 no2 mi1ko2to2 no2 na turasu to2 mi1-tatasi serisi isi wo tare miki1
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
      [Note: Another version replaces na turasu to2 with (ayu turu to2, "catching sweetfishes")

Derived terms

  • (opoisi), (opi2si)

Descendants

  • Japanese: ? (ishi)

Vietnamese

Han character

?: Hán Vi?t readings: th?ch[1][2][3], ?án[3]
?: Nôm readings: th?ch[1][2], s?ch[1]

  1. Hán t? form of th?ch ("stone").

References


Yaeyama

Kanji

?

Etymology

Cognate with Japanese ? (ishi).

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , romaji isï)

  1. stone

Yonaguni

Kanji

?

Etymology

Cognate with Japanese ? (ishi).

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , romaji ichi)

  1. stone

References

  • "" in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.

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