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See also: ?, ?, and ?

Translingual

Stroke order
10 strokes

Alternative forms

In simplified and traditional Chinese, the ? component is connected to the horizontal line below it whereas, in Japanese and Korean, ? is separate from that line.

Han character

? (radical 109, ?+5, 10 strokes, cangjie input ? (JBMC), four-corner 40801, composition ???)

Usage notes

The Kangxi dictionary considers ? as an unorthodox form () of ?. However, the traditional Kangxi form ? with ? on top is rarely used nowadays. In modern times, ? is considered the orthodox form in all regions except South Korea.

Derived characters

Related characters

  • ? (Original form of ?)

Further reading

  • KangXi: page 805, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 23236
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1221, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 249, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+771F

Chinese

trad. ?/?
simp. ?
alternative forms

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character ?
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Small seal script
?-seal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (): ? ("spoon, fork") + ? ("ancient food vessel") - using a fork to fetch food from a cauldron. Alternatively, an ancient variant of ? (OC *te?, "divination").

Etymology

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan; cognate with Tibetan ? (bden, "true; truth"). Possibly connected with ? (OC *te?) (Schuessler, 2007)

Pronunciation

Definitions

?

  1. true; genuine; real; actual
    ????,???! [MSC, trad.]
    ????,???! [MSC, simp.]
    Nà bù shì zh?n zuànshí xiàngliàn, shì ji? de! [Pinyin]
    That's not a real diamond necklace, it's just a fake!
    ??? [MSC, trad.]
    ??? [MSC, simp.]
    Nàxi? shì zh?n zuànshí háishì yànp?n? [Pinyin]
    Are those real diamonds or only shams?
  2. clear; distinct; sharp
  3. really; truly; very; quite
    ??? / ???  -  J?nti?n zh?n rè.  -  It's so hot today.
    ???? [MSC, trad.]
    ???? [MSC, simp.]
    Nà xi? y?nyuán zh?n li?obuq? [Pinyin]
    Those actors are really great.
    ???? / ????  -  Zh?n de ma?  -  Really?
  4. portrait; image
  5. natural disposition
  6. (Chinese calligraphy) Short for / (zh?nsh?, "regular script").

Descendants

Sino-Xenic (?):
  • -> Japanese:? () (shin)
  • -> Korean:? (?, jin)
  • -> Vietnamese: chân (?)

Compounds

Further reading


Japanese

Kanji

?

(grade 3 "Ky?iku" kanjishinjitai kanji, ky?jitai form ?)

Readings

  • Go-on: (shin, J?y?)
  • Kan-on: (shin, J?y?)
  • Kun: ? (ma, ?, J?y?); (makoto, ?)
  • Nanori: (sana); (sane); (tada); (tadashi); (nao); (nori); (m?); (mako); (masa); (mado); (mana); (mayu); ? (mi); (michi); ? (mo)

Compounds

Etymology 1

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 3
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese ? (MC ti?n).

Pronunciation

Noun

? (shinjitai kanji, ky?jitai kanji ?, hiragana , r?maji shin)

  1. truth, reality
Derived terms
Idioms

Affix

? (shinjitai kanji, ky?jitai kanji ?, hiragana , r?maji shin)

  1. truth, reality, genuineness
  2. natural, pristine
  3. complete, wholly
  4. regular script (, kaisho)
Derived terms

Proper noun

? (shinjitai kanji, ky?jitai kanji ?, hiragana , r?maji Shin)

  1. a surname
  2. a female given name

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
?
?
Grade: 3
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese.

Pronunciation

Prefix

? (shinjitai kanji, ky?jitai kanji ?, hiragana ?, r?maji ma-)

  1. just, right, pure, genuine, true, real
Derived terms

Noun

? (shinjitai kanji, ky?jitai kanji ?, hiragana ?, r?maji ma)

  1. truth, reality, genuineness
Idioms

Etymology 3

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 3
kun'yomi
Alternative spellings ?
?

Compound of ? (ma-, "true", see above) +‎ ?, ? (koto, "thing, word").[1]

Pronunciation

Noun

? (shinjitai kanji, ky?jitai kanji ?, hiragana , r?maji makoto)

  1. truth, reality, genuineness

Adverb

? (shinjitai kanji, ky?jitai kanji ?, hiragana , r?maji makoto)

  1. absolutely, really
Derived terms

Interjection

? (shinjitai kanji, ky?jitai kanji ?, hiragana , r?maji makoto)

  1. used for recalling information previously forgotten or sudden change of subjects: that's right
Derived terms

Proper noun

? (shinjitai kanji, ky?jitai kanji ?, hiragana , r?maji Makoto)

  1. a male or female given name

Etymology 4

Kanji in this term
?
Grade: 3
nanori

From classical adjective (atsushi), modern (atsui, "thick, heavy; kind, warm").

Proper noun

? (shinjitai kanji, ky?jitai kanji ?, hiragana , r?maji Atsushi)

  1. a male given name

Etymology 6

Kanji in this term
?
Grade: 3
nanori

From classical adjective (tadashi), modern (tadashii, "correct, right, true").

Proper noun

? (shinjitai kanji, ky?jitai kanji ?, hiragana , r?maji Tadashi)

  1. a male given name

Etymology 7

Kanji in this term
?
Grade: 3
nanori

From classical adjective (masashi, "accurate, authentic, correct").

Proper noun

? (shinjitai kanji, ky?jitai kanji ?, hiragana , r?maji Masashi)

  1. a male given name

References

  1. ? 1.01.11.21.3 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN
  2. ? 2.02.12.2 1998, NHK (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), T?ky?: NHK, ->ISBN

Korean

Hanja

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

? (eumhun ? ? (cham jin))

  1. Alternative form of ?

References

  • Zonmal.com Hanja Dictionary (? ?/?) (2002-2005). [1]

Vietnamese

Han character

?: Hán Nôm readings: chân, chan, chang, sân

  1. Hán t? form of chân ("truth").

Compounds


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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