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%E7%81%AB

Translingual

Stroke order
?-order.gif

Alternative forms

  • ? (when used as a bottom Chinese radical)

Han character

Stroke order
4 strokes

? (radical 86, ?+0, 4 strokes, cangjie input ? (F), four-corner 90800, composition ???(GJKV) or ???(HT))

  1. Kangxi radical #86, ?.

Derived characters

References

  • KangXi: page 665, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 18850
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1073, character 19
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 2187, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+706B

Chinese

simp. and trad.
?

Glyph origin

Pictogram () - pictographic representation of a fire.

Etymology

Possibly from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *mej (Schuessler 2007; STEDT). However, see there for phonological problems.

Pronunciation

Definitions

?

  1. fire; flame
    ?????? [MSC, trad.]
    ?????? [MSC, simp.]
    K?y? g?n n? jiè y?ge hu? ma? [Pinyin]
    Can I borrow a light?
  2. fire (as a disaster); inferno
  3. red; fiery; bright; brilliant
  4. to burn down
  5. light; torch
  6. (dialectal) light; lamp
  7. anger; rage; wrath
  8. to become enraged
  9. angry; furious
  10. (traditional Chinese medicine) internal heat
  11. firearm; ammunition; weapon
  12. war; warfare
  13. thriving; brisk
  14. urgent; pressing
  15. (neologism) to become popular; to go viral
  16. (Cantonese) watt (unit of power)
    Synonyms: (w?tè), ? (w?)
    20?? / 20?? [Cantonese]  -  20 fo2 ge3 dang1 daam2 [Jyutping]  -  20-watt lightbulb
  17. Short for (Hu?x?ng, "Mars").
  18. (Cantonese) roasted
    Synonyms: ? (k?o), ?/? (sh?o)
    ?? / ?? [Cantonese]  -  fo2 aap3 [Jyutping]  -  roasted duck

Synonyms

Compounds

Descendants

Sino-Xenic (?):
  • -> Japanese:?(?) (ka)
  • -> Korean:? (?, hwa)
  • -> Vietnamese: ho? (?)

Japanese

Kanji

?

(grade 1 "Ky?iku" kanji)

Readings

Compounds

Etymology 1

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
? (hi, ho, ka): fire.
Kanji in this term
?
?
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

?pi2? -> */p/ -> /?i/ -> /hi/

From Old Japanese,[1] from Proto-Japonic *poy.

Apophonic form of ho (see below), possibly by fusion with emphatic particle ? (i). Compare the development of ? (ko -> ki, "tree").

Alternative forms

  • (light): ?

Pronunciation

Noun

?(?) o (hi

  1. term relating to fire:
    1. a flame
      Synonyms: (kaki), ? (faia), ? (hon?)
    2. cooking fire
    3. a firestarter
    4. sparks
    5. light (matches or lighter)
      ?(?)??(?)?
      Hi o kashite moraeru?
      Can I borrow a light?
    6. heat
      Synonyms: (kanetsu), ? (netsu)
    7. a conflagration
      Synonyms: (kasai), (kaji)
    8. a signal fire
      Synonym: (noroshi)
  2. (by extension) a light
  3. a burning passion
  4. menstruation
    Synonym: (gekkei)
Derived terms
Idioms

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
?
?
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

/po/ -> /?o/ -> /ho/

From Old Japanese.[1]

Combining form of hi above. Probably the oldest form, possibly cognate with Korean ? (bul, "fire").

Pronunciation

Noun

?(?) o (ho

  1. a fire
Derived terms

Etymology 3

? (ka): fire in the Wu Xing system
Kanji in this term
?
?
Grade: 1
on'yomi

/kwa/ -> /ka/

From Middle Chinese ? (MC hu?X).[1]

Pronunciation

Noun

?(?) o (ka (historical kana )

  1. a fire
  2. one of the five classical elements in traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine: see Wikipedia-logo-v2.svg Wu Xing on Wikipedia.Wikipedia
  3. (historical) under the old (Ritsury?) system of ancient Japan, a military grouping, consisting of 10 soldiers: a squad
    Synonym: (buntai)
  4. Short for (kay?bi): Tuesday
Derived terms

Affix

?(?) o (ka (historical kana )

  1. fire
  2. light
  3. burning
  4. passion
  5. imminently
  6. explosive

Proper noun

?(?) o (Ka (historical kana )

  1. Antares, in the constellation Scorpio
    Synonyms: (Antaresu), (Taika)

References

  1. ? 1.01.11.2 1988, () (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), T?ky?: Shogakukan
  2. ? 2.02.1 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN

Korean

Etymology

From Middle Chinese ? (MC hu?X).

Historical readings

Pronunciation

  • (in (, hwayo, "Tuesday")):
  • (fire; etc.):
    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [?wa?:]
    • Phonetic hangeul: [?:]
      • Long vowel distinction only applies at the initial position. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.

Hanja

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

? (eumhun ? ? (bul hwa))

  1. Hanja form? of ? ("fire; heat; light").
  2. Hanja form? of ? ("burning fire").
  3. Hanja form? of ? ("conflagration; fire").
  4. Hanja form? of ? ("yang (in contrast to yin); (figuratively) sun").
  5. Hanja form? of ? ("club; group; party").
  6. Hanja form? of ? ("companion").
  7. Hanja form? of ? ("an analogy of urgency").
  8. Hanja form? of ? ("to burn; set something on fire").
  9. Hanja form? of ? ("(as an abbreviation) Mars").
  10. Hanja form? of ? ("(as an abbreviation) Tuesday").

Compounds

References

  • ( ) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, ?/?. [1]

Old Japanese

Etymology 1

From Proto-Japonic *poy.

Apophonic form of po (see below), possibly by fusion with emphatic particle ? (i(2)).

Compare the development of ? (ko2 -> ki2, "tree").

Noun

? (pi2) (kana ?)

  1. a fire
    • 711-712, Kojiki (poem 24)
      ???
      sanesasi Sagamu no2 wono1 ni mo1yuru pi2 no2 ponaka ni tatite to1pi1si ki1mi1 pa mo2
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
  2. (by extension) a light
Derived terms

Descendants

  • Japanese: ? (hi), ? (hi)

Etymology 2

Combining form of pi2 above, probably the older form.

Noun

? (po) (kana ?)

  1. a fire
Derived terms

Descendants

  • Japanese: ? (ho)

Etymology 3

Appears in only one poem in the Man'y?sh? (c. 759 C.E.) as a compound, see derived term (asipu).

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: "Eastern OJP variant of hypothetical *?po2??")

Noun

? (pu) (kana ?)

  1. (regional, Central Eastern Old Japanese) a fire
Derived terms

Vietnamese

Han character

?: Hán Vi?t readings: h?a/ho?[1][2][3]
?: Nôm readings: h?a/ho?[2][3][4][5], ?a/o?[1]

  1. Hán t? form of ho? ("fire").

Compounds

References


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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