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Translingual

Han character

? (radical 85, ?+3, 6 strokes, cangjie input (EM), four-corner 31110, composition ???)

Descendants

References

  • KangXi: page 606, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17140
  • Dae Jaweon: page 999, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 1551, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+6C5F

Chinese

simp. and trad.
?

Glyph origin

Phono-semantic compound (, OC *kro:?): semantic ? + phonetic ? (OC *ko:?).

Etymology 1

"Yangtze River"

Borrowed from a substrate Mon-Khmer language as Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kl(j)u(?/k) ("river, valley"); compare Proto-Mon-Khmer *ru? ~ ruu? ~ ru ("river") > Proto-Vietic *k-ro:? ("river") (Vietnamese sông), Mon (kr, "small river, creek").

Derivative: ? (OC *kro:, *?lo:?s, "harbour").

Pronunciation

Definitions

?

  1. Yangtze River
  2. (by extension) river
  3. A surname​: Jiang (mainland China), Chiang (Taiwan), Kong (Hong Kong)
Usage notes

The word that referred to a body of flowing water such as stream, creek or river was represented in early Chinese with ? (shu?), a pictograph showing water flowing between two banks, similar to the form of the character ? (chu?n).

In early times, specialized characters were created to represent words that described particular bodies of water. These words often contain the water radical (?), which was originally written in the same way that the original form of ? was written.

In early texts, the term ? () usually referred directly to the / (Huáng Hé, "Yellow River"). Over time, ? became used as a generalized term for rivers that were bigger than a stream. The term is sometimes associated with an 'older' body of flowing water that has a smaller volume. Similarly, ? was originally the name of the Yangtze River which is a relatively larger body of flowing water. ? became the standard bearer for a slightly differentiated category of river. It was then applied broadly as a generic term.

Among Chinese users, there are commonly held beliefs about the differences between these near synonyms that may not be reflected in an ordinary dictionary. ? are often thought of as the larger rivers that are usually in southern China, while ? are usually rivers with comparatively lesser volume or that are artificial and are usually found in northern China (and may be considered culturally 'older'). These two terms are often the subject of attempts at comparisons. Terms for smaller bodies of flowing water include: ? (chu?n) which are usually mid-sized or relatively small rivers, ? (x?) and ? (liú) which are creeks, streams, brooks, and gullies, and ? (shu?) which are streams (but can also be medium-sized tributary rivers like the Han River (/ (Hànshu?)). There are many exceptions to these patterns owing inconsistent usage of the relevant terms in different forms of Chinese and English over time, and also due to cultural attitudes about proper usage of the terms.

See also
  • ? ()
  • ? (chu?n)

Compounds

Etymology 2

For pronunciation and definitions of ? - see ? ("cowpea").
(This character, ?, is the second-round simplified form of ?.)
Notes:

Japanese

Kanji

?

(common "J?y?" kanji)

  1. creek
  2. inlet
  3. bay

Readings

Compounds

Etymology 1

Kanji in this term
?
?
Grade: S
kun'yomi

/je/ -> /e/

From Old Japanese. The ye pronunciation merged with e in Early Middle Japanese. The merged sound was ye until the Edo period, which is found in Yedo, yen and Yebisu.

This term was so representative of the ye reading that it lent its shape to the hentaigana ? (ye).

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana ?, r?maji e)

  1. inlet, bay
  2. (archaic, possibly obsolete) (general term for a large body of water)
    1. sea
    2. large river
    3. lake
Usage notes

Although ? (e) was sometimes used generically for a large body of water, it was most often used to indicate the portion of that body of water that extended inland.[2]

Synonyms
Derived terms

Proper noun

? (hiragana ?, r?maji E)

  1. a surname

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: S
kan'on

/kau/ -> /k?:/ -> /ko:/

From Middle Chinese ? (MC k).

The (kan'on) reading, so likely a later borrowing.

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji k?, historical hiragana )

  1. (archaic) large river

Proper noun

? (hiragana , r?maji K?, historical hiragana )

  1. short for (Ch?k?): the Yangtze River
  2. old name for (Biwa-ko): Lake Biwa
  3. a surname
  4. a unisex given name
Derived terms

Etymology 3

Various nanori readings.

Pronunciation

Proper noun

? (hiragana , r?maji G?)

  1. a surname
  2. a unisex given name

Etymology 4

Particle

? (hiragana ?, r?maji e)

  1. (dated) Alternative spelling of ? (e, "to, towards")
    • 1977, ?1977?1?13
      ? ()? ()? ()? (?)? (?)? ()? ()? (?)
      Nait? Kunio yori Misora Hibari san e
      From Kunio Naito to dear Ms. Hibari Misora

References

  1. ^ 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN
  2. ^ 1988, () (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), T?ky?: Shogakukan

Korean

Hanja

? (eumhun ? ? (gang gang))

  1. river

Compounds

  • (, gangnam) : south of river, district south of the Han River
  • (, gangbuk) : north of river, district north of the Han River
  • (, gangsan) : river and mountain, landscape
  • (, gangbyeon) : riverside

Vietnamese

Han character

? (giang, gi?ng, nh?ng, gianh)

  1. (only in compounds) river

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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