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See also: ?, ?, ?, ?, and ?
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Translingual

Stroke order
4 strokes
Stroke order
?-order.gif

Alternative forms

  • ? (when used as a left radical)
  • ? (when used in characters such as ?)

Han character

? (radical 85, ?+0, 4 strokes, cangjie input ? (E), four-corner 12230, composition ?????(GJKV) or ???(GJKV) or ?????(HT))

  1. Kangxi radical #85, ?.

Derived characters

References

  • KangXi: page 603, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17083
  • Dae Jaweon: page 992, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 1545, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+6C34

Further reading


Central Bai

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Noun

? (xuix)

  1. hanzi form of xuix
    • 1450, Yang Fu (), ----:
      ?
      Boiling tea water, greeting each other.

Chinese

simp. and trad.
?
alternative forms ?
?

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character ?
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
?-oracle.svg ?-bronze.svg ?-bronze-warring.svg ?-silk.svg ?-slip.svg ?-seal.svg ?-bigseal.svg

Pictogram () - compare ? (chu?n).

Wikipedia has articles on:
  • ? (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • ? (Cantonese)
  • ? (Classical)
  • ? (Gan)
  • súi (Hakka)
  • c?i (Min Dong)
  • chúi (Min Nan)
  • ? (Wu)

Etymology 1

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *lwi(j) ("flow; stream") (Benedict, 1974; Coblin, 1986; Handel, 1998; Schuessler, 2007; STEDT). Cognate with Mizo lui ("stream; brook; river"), Tedim Chin [script needed] (lu:i³, "stream; river"), Jingpho lawi ("to flow (as water)").

Old Chinese ? (OC lhui?) (minimally reconstructed) is Sino-Tibetan root's endoactive derivation with suffix *-?, meaning "that which is flowing"; its voiceless initial suggests the presence of a nominalizing prefix *k- or *s-. Another derivative from the Sino-Tibetan root is possibly ? (OC win?, "to flow") (minimally reconstructed).

Compare also areal etymon Proto-Mon-Khmer *luj? ~ luuj ~ lu?j ~ lj ("to wade; to swim").

Alternatively, Gong (1995) reconstructs Old Chinese *hlj?dx and compares it to Tibetan (chu, "water"), which STEDT derives from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *tsju ("water; liquid; bodily fluid"). Baxter and Sagart (2014), employing evidence from Proto-Min, reconstructs Old Chinese *s.tur? and compares it to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *tw?j ("to flow; to suppurate"), which is likely related to *m-t(w)?j-n ~ m-ti-s ("water; fluid; to soak; to be wet") (STEDT). Like Gong (1995), Sagart (2017) compares it to Tibetan (chu), but he also compares it to Bodo (India) (dwi), Mizo tui, Proto-Karen *thej?, all of which STEDT derives from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-t(w)?j-n ~ m-ti-s. Handel deems derivations from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *tsju or *m-t(w)?j-n ~ m-ti-s unlikely because of phonological issues (STEDT).

Pronunciation

Definitions

?

  1. water (Classifier: ?; ?; ?; ?; ?)
    ??????,? [MSC, trad.]
    ??????,? [MSC, simp.]
    Q?ng g?i w? y? b?i shu?, xièxiè. [Pinyin]
    A glass of water, please.
  2. liquid; potion; juice
    ??  -  k?ushu?  -  saliva
    ??  -  yángshu?  -  amniotic fluid
    ? / ?  -  y?nyàoshu?  -  eyedrop
  3. (colloquial, chiefly Singapore, Malaysia) Synonym of / (y?nliào, "beverage").
    ???? / ????  -  Yào jiào shénme shu??  -  What beverage do you want to order?
    ???? [Hokkien]  -  Beh kiò sím-mi?h chúi? [Pe?h-?e-j?]  -  What beverage do you want to order?
  4. (archaic) river
    ?? / ??  -  Hànshu?  -  the Han River
  5. body of water
  6. waterway
  7. flood
    ?? / ??  -  f?shu?  -  to flood
  8. additional cost or income
  9. (dialectal) rain
  10. (Cantonese) money
  11. (Hong Kong Cantonese) hundred dollars (Classifier: ?)
    ??? [Cantonese]  -  saam1 gau6 seoi2 [Jyutping]  -  three hundred dollars
  12. (colloquial) lacking substance or power; worthless
    ????? [MSC, trad.]
    ????? [MSC, simp.]
    Zhèl? de dàxué tài shu? le. [Pinyin]
    The universities here are too weak.
  13. Short for (huáshu?, "to shirk; to slack off").
  14. (colloquial) Classifier for the number of times clothing was washed.
  15. Sui people
    ?? / ??  -  shu?sh?  -  Shuishu (the traditional writing system of the Sui people)
  16. A surname​.
Synonyms

Compounds

Descendants

Etymology 2

For pronunciation and definitions of ? - see ? ("Min Nan: pretty; beautiful").
(This character, ?, is a variant form of ?.)

References


Japanese

Kanji

?

(grade 1 "Ky?iku" kanji)

Readings

Compounds

Etymology 1

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
kun'yomi

?mi1du? -> */m?idu/ -> /mid?zu/ -> /mizu/

From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *mentu. Cognate with Proto-Ryukyuan *mezu.

Possibly cognate with ? (mizu, "freshness, youth").

Pronunciation

Noun

?() o (mizu (midu)?

  1. water (sometimes cold and/or fresh)
    Synonyms: (u?t?), (w?t?), (Tsugaru) (gakko)
    Antonym: ? (yu, specifically meaning "hot water")
  2. drinking water
    Synonyms: (insui, nomimizu), (in'y?sui), (inry?sui)
  3. a fluid, liquid
    Synonym: (ekitai)
  4. a flood
    Synonyms: (?mizu), (k?zui), (shussui)
  5. (sumo) Short for (mizuiri): halting
  6. (sumo) Short for (chikara mizu): water offered to sumo wrestlers before a bout

Usage notes

Note that, while mizu is the most general Japanese term for "water", it does refer specifically to "water that is not hot". Meanwhile, the word ? (yu) refers specifically to "hot water". Consider (mizu-buro, "cold-water bath"), contrasting with (furo, "bath", implying hot water).

Derived terms
Idioms
Proverbs

Prefix

?() o (mizu- (midu)?

  1. water
Derived terms

Proper noun

?() o (Mizu (midu)?

  1. a female given name
  2. a surname

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
?
?
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

?mi1? -> */m?i/ -> /mi/

From Old Japanese.

Typically found in compounds.[2]

Affix

?(?) o (mi

  1. Combining form of (mizu) above
Derived terms

Etymology 3

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
on'yomi

/?uwi/ -> */suwi/ -> /sui/

From Middle Chinese ? (MC iu?X).

Compare modern Mandarin ? (shu?), modern Hakka ? (súi).

Pronunciation

Noun

?() o (sui

  1. water: one of the five classical elements in traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine
  2. Short for (suiy?bi): Wednesday
  3. shaved ice served with flavored syrup
    Synonym: (k?rimizu)

Affix

?() o (sui

  1. water
  2. body of water
  3. fluid, liquid
  4. Short for (suiso): hydrogen
Derived terms

Proper noun

?() o (Sui

  1. a female given name

Etymology 4

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
Irregular

?mopi1? -> */mop?i/ -> /mo?i/ -> /mowi/ -> /moi/

From Old Japanese. Via metonymy from the word ?, ? (moi, "bowl"), from the meaning of "that which goes in the ?, ? (moi, "bowl")".[1][2]

Pronunciation

Noun

?() o (moi (mofi)?

  1. (obsolete) drinking water
Derived terms

See also

References

  1. ? 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN
  2. ? 2.0 2.1 1988, () (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), T?ky?: Shogakukan

Korean

Etymology

From Middle Chinese ? (MC iu?X).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ? (Yale: sy?y)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[1] (Yale: múl) (Yale: syú)


Pronunciation

Hanja

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

? (eumhun ? ? (mul su))

  1. Hanja form? of ? ("water"). [affix]
  2. Hanja form? of ? ("Short for () (suyoil, "Wednesday").").

Compounds

References


Lama Bai

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Noun

? (?y³³)

  1. hanzi form of ?y³³ (water)

Miyako

Kanji

?

Etymology

From Proto-Ryukyuan *mezu.

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji mizu, mik?)

  1. water

References


Northern Amami-Oshima

Kanji

?

Etymology

From Proto-Ryukyuan *mezu.

Noun

? (hiragana ?, r?maji mïzï)

  1. water

Oki-No-Erabu

Kanji

?

Etymology

From Proto-Ryukyuan *mezu.

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji miji)

  1. water

References

  • "" in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.

Okinawan

Kanji

?

(grade 1 "Ky?iku" kanji)

Readings

Compounds

Etymology

From earlier ? (midu -> midzu -> mizu), attested in 1711 in the ? (Konk?kensh?), itself from Proto-Ryukyuan *mezu.

The word underwent a pronunciation change due to the shifting of /u/ to /i/ after alveolar consonants.

Cognate with Japanese ? (mizu), Old Japanese ? (mi1du).

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji miji)

  1. water

Derived terms

References

  1. ^ "" in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary.
  • "" in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.

Southern Amami-Oshima

Kanji

?

Etymology

From Proto-Ryukyuan *mezu.

Noun

? (hiragana ?, r?maji mïdi)

  1. water

Southern Bai

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Noun

? (?y³³)

  1. hanzi form of ?y³³ (water)

Vietnamese

Han character

?: Hán Vi?t readings: th?y/thu? (?(th?c)?(qu?)?(thi?t))[1][2][3][4][5]
?: Nôm readings: th?y/thu?[1][2][4][6], nc[2]

  1. Hán t? form of thu? ("water").
  2. (uncommon) Nôm form of nc ("water").

Compounds

References


Yonaguni

Kanji

?

Etymology

From Proto-Ryukyuan *mezu.

Possibly also related to Korean ? (mul), Middle Korean ? (mil, "water").

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji min, hiragana , r?maji m?n)

  1. water

References


Yoron

Kanji

?

Etymology

From Proto-Ryukyuan *mezu.

Possibly also related to Korean ? (mul), Middle Korean ? (mil, "water").

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji miji)

  1. water

References


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