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See also: ?, ?, ?, and ?


Stroke order
5 strokes
Stroke order

Alternative forms

As a component of some complex characters, ? is often written as ? with its last two strokes different. Compare ? and ?.

Han character

? (radical 77, ?+1, 5 strokes, cangjie input ? (MYLM), four-corner 10101, composition ???)

Usage notes

  • (tally marks, 5): The successive strokes of ? (East Asian tally marks 1 through 5) are used in China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea and other areas where Chinese characters are prominent to designate tallies in votes, scores, points, sushi orders, and the like, much as Tally b05.svg is used in Africa, the Americas, Australia, and Europe. Tallies beyond five are written with a ? for each group of five, followed by the remainder. For example, a tally of twelve 12 in tally marks as used in Europe, Zimbabwe, Australia, and North America is written as .

Derived characters


  • KangXi: page 574, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 16255
  • Dae Jaweon: page 962, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1436, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+6B63


simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character ?
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
?-oracle.svg ?-bronze.svg ?-seal.svg ?-bigseal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (, OC *tje?, *tje?s): phonetic ? (OC *rte:?, *te:?) + semantic ? ("foot") - to go on a long journey. Original form of ? (OC *tje?, "to go on long campaign").


Sino-Tibetan or area word: "centre; target; first (month); straight; correct".

Compare Mizo dîng ("to go straight or direct (as person, arrow etc.); to go straight through without breaking the journey; straight; direct"). Matisoff sets up Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-tjak/? ~ tik/? ("good; very; real; straight") for this, which includes ?, ? (OC *d, "straight; right") and ? (OC *?li?, "solid; true").

Additionally, Matisoff has Proto-Sino-Tibetan *t(r)wa? ("straight; straighten"), whence Chepang ? (d?e?-, "straight"), Jingpho ding ("straight"), Tibetan (drang po, "straight; correct; upright; just; fair"), Burmese ? (tan:, "straight; to head straight for"). Also compare Khmer (ti?ng, "accurate; correct; exact; precise; honest").


  • ? (OC *tje?, "to go straight > to go on a journey")
  • ? (OC *tje?s, "correct; to govern; government; to determine")
  • ? (OC *tje, "orderly; to arrange; to dispose")

Pronunciation 1



  1. straight; upright; central; in proper position
    Antonym: ? (w?i)
  2. right; proper; correct
  3. exact; standardized; just so
  4. regular-shaped; regular; square
  5. primary; chief; main
  6. pure; unmixed; authentic; true
  7. pretty; attractive; beautiful
  8. honest; upright; honourable
  9. (Cantonese) awesome; fantastic
  10. just now; right now; in the process of
  11. to straighten; to make straight; to adjust
  12. to make right; to rectify; to correct
  13. (tally marks) 5
  14. (numismatics) obverse
  15. (numeral) ten duodecillion(1040)
  16. (mathematics) positive; plus
  17. (physics) positive
  18. (time) sharp
    ??? [Cantonese, trad.]
    ??? [Cantonese, simp.]
    ji4 gaa1 hai6 ng5 dim2zing3. [Jyutping]
    It is currently 5 o'clock.
  19. (Teochew) only; merely
  20. (Teochew) just; just now
  21. (Teochew) only then; only after
  22. (Teochew) Used to emphasize that something is/is not.
  23. (Min Nan) right (direction)
  24. A surname​.
  25. Individual strokes are added in writing sequence to tally a count of five per character.



  • (right): (Min Nan) ? (, "left")


See also

Chinese numerals
104 108 1012 1016 1020 1024 1028 1032 1036 1040 1044 1048
?/? (wàn) ?/? () ? (zhào) (Taiwan) ? (j?ng) (Taiwan) ? (g?i) ? (z?) ? (ráng) ?/? (g?u) ?/? (jiàn) ? (zhèng) ?/? (zài) ?/? ()
/ (wànyì)
(Mainland China)
(Mainland China)

Pronunciation 2



  1. first (month of the lunar year)
  2. +bull's eye; centre of target
  3. +target; goal
  4. +Original form of ? (zh?ng, "to levy").
  5. +Original form of ? (zh?ng, "to go on a punitive expedition").



Sino-Xenic (?):
  • -> Japanese:?() (sh?); ?() (sei)
  • -> Korean:? (?, jeong)
  • -> Vietnamese: chính (?), chánh (?)


    • Lao: (ch?ang, "first month of the lunar year")
    • Lü: (?seng, "first month in Dai lunar calendar, starting in November")
    • Northern Thai: ? ("first month of the lunar year")
    • Shan: ? (ts?ng, "first month of the Shan year, starting December-January")
    • Ahom: ? (ching, "first month of the lunar year")




(grade 1 "Ky?iku" kanji)


  • Go-on: (sh?, J?y?) (syau, historical)
  • Kan-on: (sei, J?y?)
  • Kun: ? (tadashii, , J?y?); (tadasu, , J?y?); (masa, ?, J?y?); (masani, )
  • Nanori: (?); (kuni); ? (ma); (masashi); (tadashi)



?() o (sei

  1. A number of ten-duodecillion(1040) in modern Japanese since 17th century.
  2. 5. Similar to four vertical lines followed by a slanted horizontal line crossing through them, this character is used to count to 5 stroke by stroke. Thus this kanji written up to the third stroke represents 3. After the fifth and final stroke, when this character is completed, one starts writing this character again to count to higher numbers.

Derived terms

Proper noun

?() o (Tadashi

?() o (Masashi

  1. A male given name


Etymology 1

From Middle Chinese ? (MC tiH).

Historical readings


  • Phonetic hangeul: [?:]
    Long vowel distinction only applies at the initial position. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.


Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:


? (eumhun ? (bareul jeong))

  1. Hanja form? of ? ("straight; upright; erect").


Etymology 2

From Middle Chinese ? (MC ti).

Historical readings


  • Phonetic hangeul: [?]


? (eumhun () ? (jeong-wol jeong))

  1. Hanja form? of ? ("first (month of the lunar year)").
  2. Hanja form? of ? ("target").



  • ( ) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, ?/?. [1]


Han character

?: Hán Vi?t readings: chính (?(chi)?(th?nh)?(thi?t))[1][2][3][4][5], chánh[3][4]
?: Nôm readings: chính[1][2][3][4][6], chánh[1][2][3][4][5], ch?nh[3][7][4][5][6], chi?ng[1], chênh[3], ch?nh[3], giêtng[3]

  1. Hán t? form of chính ("main; major, chief; just, righteous").
  2. Hán t? form of chánh ("chief; head").
  3. Nôm form of ch?nh.



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