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See also: ?, ?, and ?

Translingual

Stroke order
4 strokes
Stroke order
?-order.gif

Han character

? (radical 74, ?+0, 4 strokes, cangjie input ? (B), four-corner 77220, composition ???)

  1. Kangxi radical #74, ?.

Usage notes

Do not confuse ? with ?, a form of ? ("flesh, meat") when used as the left-hand radical of a character. ? is used for parts of the body such as ? ("back") or ? ("liver"). These may be written identically as ?, but in careful use they are distinguished, with the inside of ? being written with unattached diagonal strokes. This is particularly an issue in looking up characters by radical; compare the ? index and ? index.

Derived characters

Further reading

  • KangXi: page 504, character 19
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14330
  • Dae Jaweon: page 879, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 2041, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+6708

Chinese

simp. and trad.
?
alternative forms ?
?
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • ? (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • goe?h (Min Nan)

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character ?
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
?-oracle.svg ?-bronze.svg ?-silk.svg ?-seal.svg ?-bigseal.svg

Pictogram () - pictographic representation of a crescent moon. Compare ?.

Etymology 1

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-(j)a-t ("moon; star"), whence also Magar [script needed] (gya hot, "moon"), Proto-Lolo-Burmese *mwat? ("star; moon") (whence Lahu m-k? ("star")) (Matisoff, 1980; STEDT).

Unger (1992) proposes cognation with Tibetan (ngo, "waxing and waning moon; half moon") (as in (mar ngo, "waning moon") and (yar ngo, "waxing moon")), which Schuessler (2007) connects to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-?ow ("white; light colour"). However, Sagart (1999) points out that the Tibetan word may be analyzed as a derivative of Tibetan (ngo, "face"), which would mean the semantic connection between "moon" and "face" had to occur either independently in Chinese and Tibetan or in Proto-Sino-Tibetan; it also requires positing a suffix -t in Chinese.

Pulleybank (1995a) proposes another etymology based on the glyph for ? (reconstructed as *mà), which he analyses as a phono-semantic compound of phonetic ? ("moon") and semantic ? ("mouth"). He suggests that the phonetic component represents a lost word for "moon" *mà, and reconstructs ? as *m (consonantal frame of "moon") + *-at (suffix) > *at. However, there are more straightforward ways of explaining the glyph origin of ? (see there), which would nullify the hypothesis of the lost word.

Pronunciation

Definitions

?

  1. (literary or dialectal) moon (Classifier: ?/? m)
  2. moon-shaped objects
  3. (literary) moonlight
  4. month (Classifier: ?/?)
  5. monthly
    ??  -  yuèx?n  -  monthly wage
  6. Classifier for months.
  7. A surname​.

Citations

For quotations of use of this term, see Citations:?.

Synonyms

  • (month): (yuèfèn)

Compounds

Descendants

Sino-Xenic (?):
  • -> Japanese:? () (getsu); ? () (gatsu)
  • -> Okinawan:? () (gwachi)
  • -> Korean:? (?, wol)
  • -> Vietnamese: nguy?t (?), ngo?t (?)

Others:

  • -> Thai: (ngûuat, "appointed time; period; instalment")
  • -> Zhuang: nyied ("moon; month")

See also

Etymology 2

For pronunciation and definitions of ? - see ? ("meat; flesh; pork; etc.").
(This character, ?, is a variant form of ?.)

Further reading


Japanese

Kanji

?

(grade 1 "Ky?iku" kanji)

Readings

Compounds

Etymology 1

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
kun'yomi

?tuki2? -> */tuk?/ -> */t?suk?/ -> /t?suki/

From Old Japanese ? (tuki2), ultimately from Proto-Japonic *tukuy.[1]

Likely a shift from Old Japanese ? (tuku), derived through a fusion with ancient Japanese emphatic nominal particle ? (i). Compare the development of ? (kami, "Shinto deity") from older combining form kamu.

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji tsuki)

  1. the moon
    Synonyms: (taiin), (m?n)
  2. (astronomy) a natural satellite
  3. moonlight, moonbeam
    Synonyms: (gekk?), (tsukikage)
  4. a (kamon, "family crest") with various designs of the moon
  5. (tarot) the Moon, the eighteenth trump or major arcana card in most traditional Tarot decks
  6. a month
  7. Short for (tsukigakoi): a mistress on a monthly allowance
  8. (archaic) a menstrual cycle, menstruation (believed to be caused by the moon)
    Synonyms: (gekkei), (tsuki no mono)
Citations

For quotations of use of this term, see Citations:?.

Derived terms
Japanese number-counter combinations for ? () (tsuki)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 How many?
? ()? () (hitotsuki) ? ()? () (futatsuki) ? (?)? () (mitsuki) ? (?)? () (yotsuki) ? ()? () (itsutsuki) ? (?)? () (mutsuki) ? ()? () (nanatsuki) ? (?)? () (yatsuki) ? ()? () (kokonotsuki) ? (?)? () (totsuki) ? ()? () (nantsuki)
Idioms
Proverbs

Proper noun

? (hiragana , r?maji Tsuki)

  1. a female given name
  2. a surname

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
kan'y?on

/at?/ -> /at?su/ -> /?at?su/

From Middle Chinese ? (MC t?).

The (kan'y?on, literally "commonly accepted sound") reading, a pronunciation in common usage based on a corruption of the Middle Chinese borrowing.

Pronunciation

  • Kan'y?yomi
  • Some dictionaries apparently classify this reading as both (goon, literally "Wu sound") and (kan'y?on).

Suffix

? (hiragana , r?maji -gatsu, historical hiragana )

  1. month of the year
Derived terms
Japanese number-counter combinations for ? () (gatsu)
1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th Which month?
? ()? () (ichigatsu) ? (?)? () (nigatsu) ? ()? () (sangatsu) ? (?)? () (shigatsu) ? (?)? () (gogatsu) ? ()? () (rokugatsu) ? ()? () (shichigatsu)
? ()? () (nanagatsu)
? ()? () (hachigatsu) ? (?)? () (kugatsu) ? ()? () (j?gatsu) ? ()? ()? () (j?ichigatsu) ? ()? (?)? () (j?nigatsu) ? ()? () (nangatsu)

Affix

? (hiragana , r?maji -gatsu, historical hiragana )

  1. moon
  2. month
Derived terms
Usage notes

When used in most compounds or when counting a number of months with ? (ka), ? is pronounced (getsu). When used in compounds for modern months of the year, it is pronounced (gatsu). When used for poetic or lunar months, it is pronounced (tsuki).

Etymology 3

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
kan'on

/etu/ -> /?et?su/

From Middle Chinese ? (MC t?). The (kan'on, literally "Han sound") reading, so likely a later borrowing.

Compare modern Hakka ? (ngie?t), Min Nan ? (ge?h).

Pronunciation

Counter

? (hiragana , r?maji -getsu, historical hiragana )

  1. a month as a duration of time
  2. (possibly obsolete) month of the year
Usage notes

When used in most compounds or when counting a number of months with ? (ka), ? is pronounced (getsu). When used in compounds for modern months of the year, it is pronounced gatsu. When used for poetic or lunar months, it is pronounced (tsuki).

Derived terms

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji getsu)

  1. Short for (getsuy?bi): Monday

Affix

? (hiragana , r?maji getsu)

  1. moon
  2. month
  3. menstruation, menstrual cycle
Derived terms

Etymology 4

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
goon

/ati/ -> /?ati/

First attested in the Edo period.

Appears to be a poetic use of the (goon, literally "Wu sound") reading, in reference to a rank of (hashi jor?, "low-end prostitute") in the Kansai region. According to a popular song, a ? (gachi, literally "moon") prostitute cost one ? (monme, old unit of currency, worth roughly 3.75 grams of silver), a ? (kage, literally "shadow") prostitute cost two monme, and a ? (shio, literally "tide; loveliness") prostitute cost three monme.[2][4]

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji gachi, historical hiragana )

  1. (Kansai, historical) during the Edo period, a low rank of low-end prostitute
Derived terms

Etymology 5

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
goon

Either a shift in sense from the low-ranking prostitute meaning above, or a shift in pronunciation from (ganchi, "stubborn and stupid").[2][4]

Pronunciation

Alternative forms

Adjective

? (-nari inflection, hiragana , r?maji gachi, historical hiragana )

  1. (archaic, possibly obsolete) crude, unrefined, hickish
    Synonym: (yabo)
Inflection

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji gachi, historical hiragana )

  1. (archaic, possibly obsolete) something or someone that/who is crude, unrefined, hickish
    Synonym: (yabo)

References

  1. ^ Pellard, Thomas (2012), "", in [1], page 6
  2. ? 2.02.12.2 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN
  3. ^ 1998, NHK (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), T?ky?: NHK, ->ISBN
  4. ? 4.04.1 1988, () (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), T?ky?: Shogakukan

Korean

Etymology

From Middle Chinese ? (MC t?). Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: wel) in Hunmong Jahoe (? / ?), 1527.

Hanja

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

? (eumhun ? ? (dal wol))

  1. Hanja form? of ? ("month").
  2. Hanja form? of ? ("moon").
  3. (abbreviation) Hanja form? of ? ("Monday").

Compounds

References

  • Lua error: not enough memory (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, Lua error: not enough memory. [2]

Lua error: not enough memory


Kunigami

Kanji

Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory

Etymology

From Lua error: not enough memory.

Pronunciation

  • Lua error: not enough memory

Noun

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. the moon

Miyako

Kanji

Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory

Etymology

From Lua error: not enough memory.

Pronunciation

  • Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory
  • Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory

Noun

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. the moon
  2. a month
  3. Lua error: not enough memory Monday

Lua error: not enough memory


Okinawan

Kanji

Lua error: not enough memory

Readings

Lua error: not enough memory

Compounds

Alternative forms

  • Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory

Etymology 1

Lua error: not enough memory From Lua error: not enough memory, from Lua error: not enough memory.

Cognate with Lua error: not enough memory.

Pronunciation

  • Lua error: not enough memory ?? [chíchì] (Lua error: not enough memory - [0]))[1]
  • Lua error: not enough memory

Noun

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. the moon
  2. a month
Derived terms

Etymology 2

Lua error: not enough memory

Pronunciation

  • Lua error: not enough memory

Noun

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. month of the year

Suffix

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. month of the year

Further reading

  • "?" in Lua error: not enough memory, 2019.
  • "" in Lua error: not enough memory, 2019.

References

  1. ^ "" in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Lua error: not enough memory.

Lua error: not enough memory


Old Japanese

Etymology 1

From Lua error: not enough memory.

Likely a shift from tuku below, derived through a fusion with Lua error: not enough memory. Compare the development of Lua error: not enough memory.

Noun

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. the moon
  2. a month
  3. a menstrual cycle, menstruation Lua error: not enough memory
Citations

For quotations of use of this term, see [[Citations:?#Lua error: not enough memory|Citations:?]].

Derived terms

Etymology 2

Possibly from Lua error: not enough memory.

Noun

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. Lua error: not enough memory the moon
  2. Lua error: not enough memory a month
  3. Lua error: not enough memory
Citations

For quotations of use of this term, see [[Citations:?#Lua error: not enough memory|Citations:?]].

Derived terms

Vietnamese

Han character

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. Hán t? form of Lua error: not enough memory.
  2. Hán t? form of Lua error: not enough memory.

Compounds

References



Yaeyama

Kanji

Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory

Etymology

From Lua error: not enough memory.

Pronunciation

  • Lua error: not enough memory

Noun

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. the moon

Lua error: not enough memory


Yonaguni

Kanji

Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory

Etymology

From Lua error: not enough memory.

Pronunciation

  • Lua error: not enough memory

Noun

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. the moon

Lua error: not enough memory


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