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See also:

Translingual

Stroke order
0 strokes

Han character

? (radical 72, ?+4, 8 strokes, cangjie input (AB), four-corner 67020, composition ???)

References

  • KangXi: page 491, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13805
  • Dae Jaweon: page 852, character 18
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1491, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+660E

Chinese

simp. and trad.
?
alternative forms ?
?
?

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character ?
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
?-oracle.svg ?-bronze.svg ?-silk.svg ?-ancient.svg ?-seal.svg ?-bigseal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (): ? ("sun") + ? ("moon") - the sun just rising and the moon not yet set - dawn (). Alternatively, it may be interpreted as two bright celestial bodies - bright. This form was already found in the oracle bone script and was prevalent throughout the eras.

Three other forms were found in the oracle bone script:

  • ? < ? ("window") + ? - the moon shining through a window - moonlight. This form was also prevalent in the ancient scripts and was considered to be the standard form in Shuowen. See this form's entry for its historical forms.
  • ? < ? ("eye") + ? - bright eyes. This form was rarely attested, so it is still uncertain whether this form is actually equivalent to ?. It reappeared in the bamboo script of the Qin dynasty, but this was probably a corruption of ?.
  • ? < ? + ? - probably a corruption of the above forms.

Etymology

Of either Proto-Sino-Tibetan origin, compare

Or from Austroasiatic, cognate with ? (OC *ra?s, "bright") (Schuessler, 2007). For more see ? (OC *ra?s).

? (OC *mra?, *mra:?s, "covenant") is a derivative (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation

Definitions

?

  1. bright; light; brilliant
  2. clear; limpid
  3. tomorrow
  4. next; following
  5. to understand
    ?? / ??  -  ji?ngmíng  -  to explain
  6. (~?) Ming dynasty
  7. A surname​, listed as #111 on the Baijiaxing
  8. (~?) (phonology) a Middle Chinese initial and the 'Phags-pa script letter ? (m-)

See also

Dynasties () in Chinese history
Name Time period Divisions
Xia
? (~?, ~?)
2070 - 1600 BCE
Shang
? (~?, ~?)
? (~?, ~?)
1600 - 1046 BCE
Zhou
? (~?, ~?)
1046 - 256 BCE Western Zhou
Eastern Zhou
/
Spring and Autumn period
Warring States period
/
Qin
? (~?, ~?)
221 - 206 BCE
Han
?/? (~?, ~?)
206 BCE - 220 CE Western Han
/
Xin
? (~?)
Eastern Han
/
Three Kingdoms
/
220 - 280 CE Wei
?
Shu
?
Wu
?/?
Jin
?/? (~?, ~?)
265 - 420 CE Western Jin
/
Eastern Jin
/
Southern and Northern dynasties
420 - 589 CE Northern dynasties
Northern Wei
Western Wei
Eastern Wei
/
Northern Zhou
Northern Qi
/
Southern dynasties
Liu Song
/
Southern Qi
/
Liang
? (~?, ~?)
Chen
?/? (~?, ~?)
Sui
? (~?, ~?)
581 - 618 CE
Tang
? (~?, ~?)
618 - 907 CE
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
?/?
907 - 960 CE
Liao
?/? (~?, ~?)
907 - 1125 CE
Song
? (~?, ~?)
960 - 1279 CE Northern Song
Southern Song
Western Xia
1038 - 1227 CE
Jin
? (~?, ~?)
1115 - 1234 CE
Western Liao
/
1124 - 1218 CE
Yuan
? (~?, ~?)
1271 - 1368 CE
Ming
? (~?, ~?)
1368 - 1644 CE
Qing
? (~?, ~?)
1636 - 1912 CE

Compounds

Descendants

Sino-Xenic (?):
  • -> Japanese:? () (my?); ? () (mei); ? () (min)
  • -> Korean:? (?, myeong)
  • -> Vietnamese: minh (?)

Japanese

Kanji

?

(grade 2 "Ky?iku" kanji)

  1. clear
  2. tomorrow
  3. bright

Readings

  • Go-on: (my?, J?y?) (myau, historical)
  • Kan-on: (mei, J?y?)
  • T?-on: (min)
  • Kun: ? (akarui, , J?y?); ? (akiraka, , J?y?); (akeru, , J?y?); (akasu, , J?y?); (akuru, , J?y?); ? (akaramu, , J?y?); (akari, , J?y?); ? (akarumu, , J?y?); (aku, , J?y?)
  • Nanori: ? (a); (aka); (akari); (akaru); (aki); (akira); (ake); (akeru); (kiyoshi); (kuni); (satoshi); (teru); (t?ru); (toshi); (nao); (nori); (hajime); (haru); (hiro); ? (mi); (mitsu); (yoshi)

Compounds

Derived terms

  • ? (?) (akatsuki): dawn, daybreak
  •  () (akarasama): plain, frank, candid
  • ? () (aka): red
  •  (?)? (akaaka to),  (?)? (akaaka to): brilliantly, clearly
  • ? () (akiraka): obvious, clear, evident
  • ? (?)? (ake): dawn, daybreak

Proper noun

? (hiragana , r?maji Akira)

  1. A male given name

Korean

Hanja

? o (myeong) (hangeul ?, revised myeong, McCune–Reischauer my?ng, Yale myeng)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Kunigami

Kanji

?


Miyako

Kanji

?

  • Kun: (, akaaz)

Okinawan

Kanji

?

(grade 2 "Ky?iku" kanji)

Readings


Vietnamese

Han character

?: Hán Vi?t readings: minh (?(mi)?(binh)?(thi?t))[1][2][3]
?: Nôm readings: m?ng[1][2][3][4][5], minh[2][5], m?ng[2][5], miêng[3][5], mênh[3]

  1. Hán t? form of minh ("bright; clear").
  2. Hán t? form of Minh ("given name").
  3. Nôm form of m?ng.

Compounds

References


Yaeyama

Kanji

?


Yonaguni

Kanji

?


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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