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See also: ?, ?, ?, ?, and ?

Translingual

Stroke order
4 strokes
Stroke order
?-order.gif

Han character

? (radical 72, ?+0, 4 strokes, cangjie input ? (A), four-corner 60100, composition ???)

  1. Kangxi radical #72, ?.
  2. Shuowen Jiezi radical No231

Usage notes

  • Not to be confused with ? (Kangxi radical #73), which is generally wider and shorter.

Derived characters

Descendants

Further reading

  • KangXi: page 489, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13733
  • Dae Jaweon: page 848, character 14
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1482, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+65E5

Chinese

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character ?
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
?-oracle.svg ?-bronze.svg ?-silk.svg ?-seal.svg ?-bigseal.svg

Pictogram () - the Sun. A dot or line was added in the centre to distinguish it from visually similar characters, e.g. ? (early form of ?). Compare earlier forms of the character with the astronomical and astrological symbol for the Sun (?).

Etymology

simp. and trad.
?
alternative forms
 
?
?
?
?
?
?
? "fuck"
? "fuck"
"Sun; day; etc."
From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-n?j. Cognate to Tibetan ? (nyi ma, "sun, day"), Burmese (ne., "day"), S'gaw Karen (n?, "day"), and Sichuan Yi ? (nyip, "day, daytime").
"to fuck"
Essentially a substitute character for ? (MC ?i?p?, "to enter"), that preserves the expected modern pronunciation of ?; see the etymology there for more.

Pronunciation 1

Definitions

?

  1. (astronomy) Sun
  2. daytime; time between sunrise and sunset
  3. day; twenty-four hours
  4. everyday; daily; day-to-day
  5. day of the month
    • ??  -  s?n yuè sì   -  March 4
  6. some day; some other time
  7. former times; previous times; the past
  8. time; period; age
  9. Classifier for days.
  10. Short for (Rìb?n, "Japan; Japanese; Nippo-"):
    • ?? / ??  -  zh?ng cídi?n  -  Chinese-Japanese dictionary
  11. (Beijing, Jiaoliao Mandarin, Southwestern Mandarin, Central Plains Mandarin, Jianghuai Mandarin, Lanyin Mandarin, dialectal Jin, dialectal Wu, dialectal Xiang, vulgar, often in abuses) to fuck; to have sexual intercourse with
    • ???! [MSC, trad.]
      ???! [MSC, simp.]
      From: 1944, (Lao She), ? (Bewilderment), in ??? (Four Generations Under One Roof)
      W? t?men shíb? bèir de z?z?ng! [Pinyin]
      Screw their ancestors to the eighteenth generation!
    • ???,????? [MSC, trad.]
      ???,????? [MSC, simp.]
      From: 2003, , ?, in ?, issue 4
      Y? jù huà, Yú quézi b? xi?oyí le. [Pinyin]
      In one sentence - Yu the Lame fucked mum's youngest sister.
    • ???,?????,????? [MSC, trad.]
      ???,?????,????? [MSC, simp.]
      From: 2004, , , in ?, issue 2
      Shènzhì zài biérén de s?ngy?ng xià, duì zhe S? Jié shu?, w? xi?ng n?. [Pinyin]
      At others' instigation, (he would) even say to Su Jie's face that "I want to fuck you".
    • ?????,???,???,??????? [MSC, trad.]
      ?????,???,???,??????? [MSC, simp.]
      From: 2014, , , in , issue 6
      Zh? Sh?n y? bùg?n t? w?, shènzhì mà w? shu?, n? m?, w? de dòufu n? y? g?n ch?. [Pinyin]
      Zhu Shan would no longer dare kick me, or insult me, and say "fuck you, how dare you flirt with my woman!"
  12. +Alternative form of ? (èr, "two").
  13. +Short for / (Rìs?b?níyà, "Spain").
Synonyms
  • (day of the month): ?/? (hào)
Antonyms
  • ? (, "night")

Compounds

Descendants

Sino-Xenic (?):
  • -> Japanese:? () (nichi); ? () (jitsu)
  • -> Okinawan:? () (nachi); ? () (nichi)
  • -> Korean:? (?, il)
  • -> Vietnamese: nh?t (?)

Pronunciation 2

Definitions

?

  1. Only used in ??, a Han dynasty-era personal name borne by Jin Midi () and Ma Midi ().

Further reading


Japanese

Kanji

?

(grade 1 "Ky?iku" kanji)

Readings

  • Go-on: (nichi, J?y?)
  • Kan-on: (jitsu, J?y?)
  • Kun: ? (hi, ?, J?y?); ? (ka, ?, J?y?); ? (bi); ? (ga)
  • Nanori: (aki); (teru); (toki); (haru); (hiru); (ni'); ? (ni); (iru); ? (su); (nitsu); ? (a); ? (he); (k?); (tachi); ? (ku); (kusa)

Compounds

Etymology 1

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
on'yomi

/n?it?/ -> /niti/

From Middle Chinese ? (MC ?i?t?).

The (goon, literally "Wu sound") reading, so likely the initial borrowing from Middle Chinese.

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji nichi)

  1. Short for (nichiy?bi): Sunday

Counter

? (hiragana , r?maji -nichi)

  1. ordinal day of a month
    27 ()? () - nij?shichi-nichi - the 27th
  2. number of days
    ? ()? ()? (?)?12 (?)? ()? - tanj?bi made ato j?ni-nichi da - My birthday is in 12 days.
Usage notes

Sometimes shortened to (​-nchi) or ? (​-chi).

Derived terms
See also
Japanese number-counter combinations for ?
1(st) 2(nd) 3(rd) 4(th) 5(th) 6(th) 7(th) 8(th) 9(th) 10(th)
How many? ? ()? () (ichinichi) ? ()? (?) (futsuka) ? ()? (?) (mikka) ? ()? (?) (yokka) ? ()? (?) (itsuka) ? ()? (?) (muika) ? ()? (?) (nanoka) ? ()? (?) (y?ka) ? ()? (?) (kokonoka) ? ()? (?) (t?ka)
What day?  (?) (tsuitachi)
? ()? (?) (ippi)
11(th) 12(th) 13(th) 14(th) 15(th) 16(th) 17(th) 18(th) 19(th) 20(th)
? ()? ()? () (j?ichinichi) ? ()? (?)? () (j?ninichi) ? ()? ()? () (j?sannichi) ? ()? ()? (?) (j?yokka) ? ()? (?)? () (j?gonichi) ? ()? ()? () (j?rokunichi) ? ()? ()? () (j?shichinichi) ? ()? ()? () (j?hachinichi) ? ()? (?)? () (j?kunichi) ? (?)? (?)? (?) (hatsuka)
24(th) 27(th) 29(th) 30(th) 40(th) 50(th) 100(th) 1,000(th) 10,000(th) ?
? (?)? ()? ()? (?) (nij?yokka) ? (?)? ()? ()? () (nij?shichinichi) ? (?)? ()? (?)? () (nij?kunichi) ? ()? ()? () (sanj?nichi)
? (?)? (?)? (?) (misoka)
? (?)? ()? () (shij?nichi)
? (?)? (?)? (?) (yosoka)
? (?)? ()? () (goj?nichi)
 (?)? (?) (ika)
? ()? () (hyakunichi)
? ()? (?) (momoka)
? ()? () (sennichi) ? ()? ()? () (ichimannichi) ? ()? () (nannichi)

Affix

? (hiragana , r?maji nichi)

  1. sun
  2. daytime, daylight
  3. day
  4. Short for (Nihon, Nippon): Japan, Japanese, Nippo-
  5. Short for (Hy?ga-no-kuni): Hy?ga Province
Derived terms

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
on'yomi

/dit?/ -> /dit?su/ -> /?it?su/

From Middle Chinese ? (MC ?i?t?). The (kan'on, literally "Han sound") reading, so likely a later borrowing from Middle Chinese.

Compare modern Min Nan ? (ji?t).

Pronunciation

Affix

? (hiragana , r?maji jitsu)

  1. sun
  2. day
Derived terms

Etymology 3

Kanji in this term
?
?
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

?pi1? -> */p?i/ -> /?i/ -> /hi/

From Old Japanese.

Alternative forms

  • (sun, sunlight, daytime): ?

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana ?, r?maji hi)

  1. the sun
    Synonyms: (taiy?), (nichirin)
  2. sunlight, sunshine
    Synonym: (nikk?)
  3. daytime, daylight
    Synonym: (hiruma)
  4. a day
  5. time and date
  6. a daily (something done everyday)
    Synonyms: (hibi), (mainichi)
  7. the weather
    Synonym: (tenki)
  8. a (usually unfortunate) case, event, situation
  9. the times (age, era, or time in the past)
    Synonyms: ? (koro), (jidai)
  10. an auspicious or inauspicious aspect of a given day
    Synonym: (higara)
  11. a (kamon, "family crest") with a sun-shaped design
Derived terms

Etymology 4

Kanji in this term
?
?
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese.

Counter

? (hiragana ?, r?maji -ka)

  1. daytimes
  2. number of days
Derived terms

References

  1. ? 1.01.1 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN

Korean

Etymology

From Middle Chinese ? (MC ?i?t?). Recorded as Middle Korean ? (Yale: zil) in Hunmong Jahoe (? / ?), 1527.

Hanja

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

? (eumhun ? ? (nal il))

  1. Hanja form? of ? ("day; sun").

Compounds

References

  • ( ) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, ?/?. [1]

Okinawan

Kanji

?

(grade 1 "Ky?iku" kanji)

Readings

Compounds


Old Japanese

Compounds

  • (asu)
  • (Asuka)
  • (Kasuga)
  • (Yamato2)

Etymology 1

From Proto-Japonic *pi.

Distinct from ? (pi2, "fire"). See J?dai Tokushu Kanazukai for details on Old Japanese readings.

Noun

? (pi1) (kana ?)

  1. the sun
  2. sunlight, sunshine
  3. daytime, daylight
  4. a day
  5. a reference to the imperial family or lineage, thought to be descended from the sun goddess Amaterasu
Derived terms
Descendants
  • Japanese: ?, ? (hi)
See also
  • (akane sasu)
  • (amadutapu)
  • ? (takaterasu)
  • (takapi1karu)

Etymology 2

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix

? (-ka) (kana ?)

  1. daytimes
  2. number of days
Derived terms
Descendants
  • Japanese: ? (-ka)

Etymology 3

Apophonic form of ka above, possibly by the fusion of ancient nominal particle ? (i).

Noun

? (ke2) (kana ?)

  1. (plural only) days
    • c. 759, Man'y?sh? (book 4, poem 484), text here
      ??
      pi1to1pi1 ko2so2 pi1to2 mo mati yo2ki1 nagaki1ke2 wo kaku nomi2 mateba arikatu
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
Derived terms

Vietnamese

Han character

?: Hán Vi?t readings: nh?t (?(nhân)?(ch?t)?(thi?t))[1][2][3], nh?t[3]
?: Nôm readings: nh?t[1][2][3][4][5], nh?t[1][2][5], nh?t[2][3], nh?t[2][5], nh?n[1]

  1. Hán t? form of nh?t ("sun; day").

Compounds

References


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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