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See also: ?, ?, and ?

Translingual

Stroke order
?-order.gif

Han character

? (radical 67, ?+0, 4 strokes, cangjie input (YK), four-corner 00400, composition ???)

  1. Kangxi radical #67, ?.

Derived characters

References

  • KangXi: page 477, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13450
  • Dae Jaweon: page 831, character 39
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 2169, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+6587

Chinese

simp. and trad.
?

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character ?
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
?-oracle.svg ?-bronze.svg ?-silk.svg ?-seal.svg ?-bigseal.svg

Ideogram (): a man with a painted or tattooed chest - original form of ?. In current form, tattoo has vanished, so simply an outline of a man (head, outstretched arms, legs, chest). Compare ?, which has no chest.

Pronunciation 1

Definitions

?

  1. +Original form of ?/? (wén, "mark, pattern, design, tattoo, decoration").
    ??? / ??? [Classical Chinese]  -  wén rú lí [Pinyin]  -  having a pattern like that of a wild cat
  2. Original form of ?/? (wén, "to tattoo").
    ??  -  wénsh?n  -  to tattoo
    ??  -  wénmiàn  -  face tattoo
  3. writing; literary composition; literature (Classifier: ? c)
    ??  -  wénjiàn  -  document
    ??  -  wénzh?ng  -  article, essay
    ?????? [Cantonese, trad.]
    ?????? [Cantonese, simp.]
    Ni1 pin1man4-2 se2 dak1 m4 co3. [Jyutping]
    This essay is written quite well.
  4. literary
  5. Short for / (wéndú, "literary reading").
  6. script; written form
    ?  -  ji?g?wén  -  oracle bone script
    ???,??? / ???,??? [Classical Chinese]  -  sh? tóng wén, ch? tóng gu? [Pinyin]  -  (please add an English translation of this example)
  7. (written) language
    Antonyms: ?/? (y?)
    ??  -  zh?ngwén  -  Chinese
    ??  -  y?ngwén  -  English
  8. culture
    ??  -  wénhuà  -  culture
    ??  -  wénmíng  -  civilization
  9. of a government position, non-military: civil, civilian
    ?? / ??  -  wénzhí  -  civilian post
    ??  -  wéngu?n  -  civil official
    ??  -  wénw?  -  civilian and military
  10. refined; educated; cultured; intellectual
    ??  -  s?wén  -  refined, cultured
    ??  -  wény?  -  elegant, refined
    ??  -  wénrén  -  scholar
  11. 47th tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "pattern, repetition" (?)
  12. (archaic) Classifier for coins.
  13. (numismatics) mill (a tenth of a cent)
    ??  -  y? wén  -  one mill
  14. A surname​.

Compounds

Pronunciation 2

Definitions

?

  1. to cover
    ?? / ??  -  wénguò, wènguò  -  to cover one's fault

Pronunciation 3

For pronunciation and definitions of ? - see ? ("(Cantonese) yuan; dollar; buck").
(This character, ?, is a variant form of ?.)

Japanese

Kanji

?

(grade 1 "Ky?iku" kanji)

Readings

  • Go-on: (mon, J?y?)
  • Kan-on: (bun, J?y?)
  • Kun: (fumi, ?, J?y?); (aya, ?)
  • Nanori: (kazari); ? (fu); ? (mo)

Etymology 1

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese ? (mjun, "ornate; a kind of coin; language, literature, a letter, a character").

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji mon)

  1. the mon, an old currency
  2. a unit of length for measuring the size of one's foot (from the way that the mon coins would be lined up and used as a kind of inch marker)
  3. a character, a letter
  4. writing, something written
  5. a magical spell
  6. (also spelled ?) a design, a pattern
  7. (also spelled ?) a (kamon, "family crest")
Usage notes

The design and crest senses are more often spelled ?.

Derived terms

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
on'yomi

A later borrowing from Middle Chinese. Compare modern Min Nan reading bûn, Hakka vûn.

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji bun)

  1. (grammar) a sentence
  2. writing, composition
  3. a design or pattern as decoration
  4. literature, learning, scholarship
  5. elegance, refinement (especially of writing or wording)
  6. a saying, an aphorism, a proverb
Derived terms

Etymology 3

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Possibly a shift from an older Middle Chinese-derived reading pun.[3] Earlier Japanese writing was ambiguous regarding the final n sound spelled ? in modern Japanese, with this sound often spelled (and possibly pronounced) as ? (mu) instead.

*/pumu/ -> /pumi/ -> /?umi/

This reading appears in the Heian period, in works such as The Tale of Genji.[3][1]

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji fumi)

  1. writing, something written
  2. a letter (written communication), an epistle
  3. (archaic) study, scholarship (especially of classical Chinese)
  4. a style of (kamon, "family crest")
Synonyms
Derived terms

Etymology 4

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Uncertain. Appears in texts from the early Heian period.[3][1]

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji aya)

  1. (also spelled ?, ?)
    1. a pattern, a design, especially one with diagonally crossing lines
    2. a diagonal crossing
    3. a flowery expression or turn of phrase
    4. a plot, a scheme
    5. a refrain or recurring phrase in a piece of music
    6. a harder vein or grain in a leaf or piece of wood or bamboo
    7. a stain, a blemish
    8. a mediator, a go-between (apparently from the way that a go-between can make the relationship more indirect and indistinct)
    9. a small indistinct fluctuation in a trend line
  2. (also spelled ?, ?)
    1. a kind of woven silk textile with a diagonally crossing pattern
    2. short for (ayaori): a twill weave; someone who weaves twill
    3. short for (ayadake): in a loom, a bamboo pole placed between the heddle and the back beam or platen, used to improve the handling
    4. short for (ayatori): cat's cradle
Usage notes

For the second group of senses, the ? spelling is more common.

Derived terms

References

  1. ? 1.01.11.21.31.41.5 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN
  2. ? 2.02.12.22.3 1997, ? (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN
  3. ? 3.03.13.2 1988, () (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), T?ky?: Shogakukan

Korean

Hanja

? (eumhun ? (geurwol mun))

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Compounds

  • (, jumun)
  • (, muneo)

Vietnamese

Han character

?: Hán Vi?t readings: v?n[1][2][3]
?: Nôm readings: v?n[1][2][4], von[3][5][4], v?n[1][2]

  1. Hán t? form of v?n ("literature; letters; culture; civilization").

Compounds

References


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