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See also: ?

Translingual

Stroke order
7 strokes

Han character

? (radical 59, ?+4, 7 strokes, cangjie input (MTHHH), four-corner 12422, composition ???)

References

  • KangXi: page 363, character 6
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 9969
  • Dae Jaweon: page 681, character 25
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 852, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+5F62

Chinese

simp. and trad.
?
alternative forms ?

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character ?
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
?-seal.svg ?-bigseal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (): ? + ?. In current form ? has been simplified to ?.

It may also be interpreted as a phono-semantic compound (, OC *?e:?): phonetic ? (OC *ske) + semantic ?, if the original character was ?.

Pronunciation

Definitions

?

  1. form; shape; appearance
    ?? / ??  -  xíngzhuàng  -  form; appearance; shape
  2. image; appearance
  3. body; entity; contour
    ?? / ??  -  xíngt?  -  physique
  4. style; vogue
  5. (grammar) Short for / (xíngróngcí, "adjective").

Synonyms

  • (form): ?/? (yàng), ? (xíng)

Compounds


Japanese

Kanji

?

(grade 2 "Ky?iku" kanji)

  1. shape, form, style

Readings

  • Go-on: (gy?, J?y?) (gyau, historical)
  • Kan-on: (kei, J?y?)
  • Kun: (kata, ?, J?y?); (katachi, ?, J?y?); (katagi); (nari, ?)
  • Nanori: ? (chi)

Compounds

Etymology 1

Probably related to / / (​katai), hard.

Pronunciation

Alternative forms

Noun

?() o (kata)

  1. a shape
  2. a form
  3. a pattern, die, or model from which copies are made
  4. on a coin, the side with writing on it: see antonym (​name)
  5. collateral for borrowed money

Etymology 2

Derived from kata above. The kata changes to gata as an instance of rendaku (). Only found in compounds.

Pronunciation

Alternative forms

Suffix

?() o (-gata)

  1. (affixed to nouns): the shape or form of the affixed noun
    ?()?(?)??()
    uzumakigata
    a whirlpool shape
    ?()?()
    tamagogata
    an egg shape
  2. (affixed to on'yomi nouns): a typical example of the affixed noun; the type of the affixed noun
    ?()?()?()
    gakushagata
    a scholar type
    ?()?()?()
    eiy?gata
    a hero type
Usage notes

For a shape, the spelling ? is more commonly used. For a type, the spelling ? is more commonly used.

Etymology 3

Derived from (​katagi), itself a compound of ? (kata, "shape") +‎ ? (ki, "tree, wood"), meaning stencil. The ki changes to gi as an instance of rendaku ().

Pronunciation

Alternative forms

Noun

?() o (katagi)

  1. social customs, mores
  2. one's appearance; one's stance or body language
  3. one's character, disposition, nature

Suffix

?() o (-katagi)

  1. the character, disposition, or nature of the affixed noun

Etymology 4

Unknown. Appears to be /kata/ + /chi/, but the derivation of the /chi/ element is unclear.

Pronunciation

Alternative forms

Noun

?() o (katachi)

  1. shape or form
  2. form, as opposed to substance
  3. shapeliness: see (​katachiari)

Etymology 5

From Middle Chinese ? (heng). Compare modern Mandarin ? (xíng). The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing.

Pronunciation

Suffix

?() o (-kei)

  1. (linguistics) grammatical tense
    ?(?)?(?)?()
    kakokei
    the past tense
    ?()?()?()
    sh?raikei
    the future tense
  2. (Japanese grammar) a conjugation form of a verb
    ?()?()?()
    ren'y?kei
    the continuative form
    ?()?()?()
    meireikei
    the imperative or command form

Etymology 6

From (​nari), the (ren'y?kei, "continuative form") of the verb (naru, "to become").

Pronunciation

Alternative forms

Usage notes

The most common spelling for this use is , for all parts of speech.

Noun

?() o (nari)

  1. one's clothing and appearance
  2. one's body shape or form
  3. one's circumstances or situation
  4. one's reputation
  5. following the plain imperfective form (attributive form, (​rentaikei)) or plain perfective form of a verb, indicates the state of the affixed verb or phrase: compare English just as
    ?()?()??(?)??
    hitobito no iu nari ni natta
    things turned out just as people were saying
  6. following the plain imperfective form (attributive form, (​rentaikei)) of an adjective, indicates responding to the affixed adjective: compare English fitting
    ?()?()???()?(?)
    samukereba samui nari no atsugi o suru
    if it's cold, then put on warm clothing / if it's cold, then put on warm clothes for cold weather
  7. following the plain imperfective form (attributive form, (​rentaikei)) of a verb, indicates the moment of the action occurring: compare English as soon as
    ?()?(?)??(?)??(?)
    kotowari o kiku nari nakidashita
    she burst into tears as soon as she heard the rejection
  8. following a noun, indicates a state fitting or becoming to the affixed noun
    ?(?)?()??()?()
    kodomo nari ni s?z? suru
    imagine in a way fitting for a child / imagine like a child (implies that the subject is a child)
    ?(?)?()??()?()
    jibun nari no handan
    my own kind of decision / deciding in my own way
  9. following a noun, indicates that shape or form: compare English like
    ?()
    yumi nari ni naru
    to become bow-shaped / to become like a bow

Suffix

?() o (-nari)

  1. following the (ren'y?kei, "continuative form") of a verb, indicates the state of the affixed verb or phrase: compare English just as
    ?()?()??(?)??
    hitobito ga iinari ni natta
    things turned out just as people say

Korean

Hanja

? o (hyeong) (hangeul ?, McCune–Reischauer hy?ng, Yale hyeng)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese

Han character

? (hình, h?nh)

  1. image
  2. a figure or a silhouette
  3. (Southern Vietnam) a photo; a picture
  4. (geometry) a shape
  5. Clipping of hình h?c ("geometry").

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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