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Translingual

Stroke order
5 strokes

Han character

? (radical 48, ?+2, 5 strokes, cangjie input (KM), four-corner 40011, composition ???)

Descendants

References

  • KangXi: page 325, character 8
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 8720
  • Dae Jaweon: page 626, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 411, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+5DE6

Chinese

simp. and trad.
?

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character ?
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
?-oracle.svg ?-bronze.svg ?-silk.svg ?-slip.svg ?-seal.svg ?-bigseal.svg

Originally as ? in the oracle bone script: Pictogram () - a left hand. Compare ? ("right hand").

Late bronze inscription forms show an added ? ("work; to assist?") component, i.e. the current form is a phono-semantic compound (, OC *?sa:l?, *?sa:ls): phonetic ? + semantic ?, representing the original form of ? (OC *?sa:ls, "to assist").

Etymology

Cognate with ? (OC *?sa:ls, "to assist") (< be on one's left side); mirror of the semantic relationship between ? (OC *?, "right") and ? (OC *s, "to assist") (Schuessler, 2007).

Unrelated to Proto-Tibeto-Burman *b(w)aj ("left (hand)") (STEDT).

Pronunciation

Definitions

?

  1. left (direction)
    ??  -  zu?sh?u  -  left hand
  2. east; areas to the east
  3. (historical) inferior position
  4. unorthodox; wrong
  5. erroneously; mistakingly
    ?????  -  N? xi?ng zu? le.  -  You are mistaken.
  6. different; divided; inconsistent
  7. (politics) left-wing
  8. (Sichuan, of singing) out of tune; off-key
  9. (Southwestern Mandarin, including Sichuan) to exchange
  10. A surname​.

Usage notes

In communist publications, ? is usually put in quotation marks when referring to something further to the left of the correct party line.

Antonyms

  • ? (yòu, "right")

Compounds

Descendants

Sino-Xenic (?):
  • -> Japanese: [Term?]? (?) (sa)
  • -> Korean: [Term?]? (?, jwa)
  • -> Vietnamese: t? (?)

Others:

  • -> Lao: ? (s?i, "left")
  • -> Thai: ? (sáai, "left")
  • -> Zhuang: swix ("left")

Japanese

Kanji

?

(grade 1 "Ky?iku" kanji)

Readings

  • Go-on: ? (sa, J?y?)
  • Kan-on: ? (sa, J?y?)
  • Kun: (hidari, ?, J?y?)

Alternative forms

Compounds

Etymology 1

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
kun'yomi

/hidari/: *[pidari] -> [?idari] -> [çidari].

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji hidari)

  1. (direction) left, the side of the left hand
    • 1603-1604, Nippo Jisho (page 229)
      Fidari. (?) , ,
    • 1999 August 10, "?????? [Left Arm of the Sealed One]", in [Phantom God], Konami:
      ? ()? ()? ()? ()?? ()? ()?? (?)? (?)? ()?? ()?? (?)?
      F?insareta hidariude. F?in o toku to, mugen no chikara o erareru.
      A sealed left arm. Whosoever breaks the seal shall earn infinite power.
  2. (politics) a leftist
Antonyms
  • (left): ? () (migi, "right")
Derived terms

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
?
?
Grade: 1
on'yomi

Middle Chinese ?

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana ?, r?maji sa)

  1. the left in vertical writing
  2. the following (one)
    • :
       (?)? () ()? ()? ()? (?)? (?)? (?)
      Wagahai wa mazu kare ga dono kurai mugaku de aru ka o tameshite miy? to omotte sa no mond? o shite mita.
      To judge just how uneducated he was, I posed the following question.

References

  1. ? 1.01.1 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN
  2. ? 2.02.1 1998, NHK (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), T?ky?: NHK, ->ISBN

Korean

Pronunciation

  • Sound: [tw?]
  • Name: [øn]/[we?n]

Hanja

? o (jwa)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): ?
    • Name (hangeul): ?
  1. left (direction)

Derived terms

  • (, jwasusa)
  • (, jwaseungji)
  • (, jwau)
  • ? (?, jwaujigan)
  • (, jwaik)
  • (, jwaiksu)
  • (, jwauijeong)
  • ? (?, jwajiuji)
  • (, jwacheon)
  • (, jwacheuk)
  • (, jwahyangjwa)

Vietnamese

Han character

? (t?, )

  1. left (direction)

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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