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See also: ?


Stroke order
Stroke order

Han character

? (radical 46, ?+0, 3 strokes, cangjie input ? (U), four-corner 22770, composition ???)

  1. Kangxi radical #46, ?.

Derived characters


  • KangXi: page 307, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 7869
  • Dae Jaweon: page 604, character 23
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 759, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+5C71


simp. and trad.
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character ?
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
?-oracle.svg ?-bronze.svg ?-silk.svg ?-seal.svg ?-bigseal.svg

Pictogram () - three mountain peaks. In the Oracle Bone Script, they were represented by triangles rather than vertical strokes. Compare ? (qi?), particularly earlier forms.


Unknown - cognates not known outside Sino-Bai. Cognate with Central Bai svrt ("mountain") (< Proto-Bai *sro?). Starostin compares it with Kayan s?ôn ("mountain").




  1. mountain; hill (Classifier: ? m c; ? mn)
    ??  -  d?ngsh?n  -  to climb a mountain
  2. hill-shaped object
    ??  -  b?ngsh?n  -  iceberg
  3. bundled straw in which silkworms spin cocoons
  4. gable
  5. A surname​. Shan

See also

  • ? (yuè)
  • ? (yuè)



Sino-Xenic (?):
  • -> Japanese:? () (san)
  • -> Korean:? (?, san)
  • -> Vietnamese: s?n (?)




(grade 1 "Ky?iku" kanji)


  • Go-on: (sen)
  • Kan-on: (san, common)
  • Kun: (yama, ?, common)
  • Nanori: (taka); (takashi); (nobu)


Etymology 1

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Kanji in this term

Grade: 1

From Old Japanese.



? (hiragana , katakana , r?maji yama)

  1. a mountain (large mass of earth and rock) or (large) hill
  2. a mine (excavation usually consisting of small tunnels)
    Synonym: (k?zan)
  3. a heap, pile
  4. the top or high part of an object
    ? (nejiyama, "thread of a screw")
    ?? (b?shi no yama, "crown of a hat")
  5. a climax, peak
    Synonyms: ? (kuraimakkusu), (zetch?)
  6. a chance, gamble
  7. a guess, speculation
  8. a crime, criminal case
    Synonym: (hanzai jiken)
  9. mountain climbing, mountaineering
    Synonym: (yamanobori)
  10. Short for (yamaboko): a festival float usually decorated with a ? (hoko)
  11. (colloquial) Mount Hiei and/or Enryaku-ji
    Antonym: ? (tera)
  12. (mahjong) a wall, wall tile
Derived terms


? (hiragana , r?maji yama-)

  1. prefix for species that are wild or residing in mountains
Derived terms


? (hiragana , r?maji -yama)

  1. counter for number of stock rise and fall like a mountain (Can we verify(+) this sense?)
  2. counter for number of mountains, forests and/or mines
Derived terms

Proper noun

? (hiragana , r?maji Yama)

  1. a surname

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term

Grade: 1

From Middle Chinese ? (MC n).

Sometimes spelled with rendaku (), as -zan.


? (hiragana , r?maji -san)

  1. Mount, Mt.
    1. suffix for names of mountains
    2. suffix for a temple's honorific mountain name
      Synonym: (sang?)
Derived terms


  1. mountain
  2. mine
  3. temple, temple ground
  4. Short for (Hieizan): Mount Hiei

Etymology 3

Kanji in this term

Grade: 1

Phonetic spelling first attested in the Edo period.

From Old Japanese, itself a borrowing from Old Korean (morye), [1][3] compare Middle Korean ? (mwoy).

Alternative forms


? (hiragana , r?maji mure)

  1. (rare, obsolete) a hill or mountain


  1. ? 1.01.1 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN
  2. ^ 1998, NHK (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), T?ky?: NHK, ->ISBN
  3. ^ 1995, (Daijisen) (in Japanese), T?ky?: Shogakukan, ->ISBN



? (eumhun ? ? (me san))

  1. mountain


Old Japanese

Etymology 1

From Proto-Japonic *yama.


? (yama) (kana )

  1. a mountain
    • 711-712, Kojiki (poem 31)
      ino2ti no2 matake1mu pi1to2 pa tatami1ko2mo2 Pe1guri-no2-yama no2 kumakasi no2 pa wo uzu ni sase so2no2 ko1
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
  2. a forested area of a mountain for harvesting, hunting, etc.
    • c. 759, Man'y?sh? (book 4, poem 779)
      itapuki1 no2 kuro1ki2 no2 yane pa yama tikasi asu no2 pi1 to2rite motimawiriko2mu
      Since the mountains are close by, tomorrow I will cut down and bring you rough logs for your wooden roof.[1]
  • Japanese: ? (yama)

Etymology 2

Borrowed from Old Korean (morye).[2][3]

Compare Middle Korean ? (mwoy).

Alternative forms


? (mure) (kana )

  1. a hill or mountain
    • 720, Nihon Shoki (Empress Jing?, entry 19: 49th year of the second month, spring)
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
Usage notes

No known Early Middle Japanese dictionaries attest the mure spelling phonetically, the earliest being found in the Mito-bon Hei Nihongi Shiki (1678).

  • Japanese: ?, (mure)


  1. ^ A Warbler's Song in the Dusk: The Life and Work of ?tomo Yakamochi (718-785) (1982) (Please provide the title of the work), illustrated edition, University of California Press, ->ISBN, page 106
  2. ^ 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN
  3. ^ 1995, (Daijisen) (in Japanese), T?ky?: Shogakukan, ->ISBN


Han character

?: Hán Vi?t readings: s?n[1][2][3], san[3]
?: Nôm readings: s?n[1][2], san[2][4]

  1. Hán t? form of s?n ("mountain").



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