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%E5%AD%97

Translingual

Stroke order
?-order.gif
Stroke order
6 strokes

Han character

? (radical 39, ?+3, 6 strokes, cangjie input (JND), four-corner 30407, composition ???)

References

  • KangXi: page 277, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 6942
  • Dae Jaweon: page 545, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1010, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+5B57

Chinese

simp. and trad.
?

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character ?
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
?-bronze-shang.svg ?-bronze.svg ?-bronze-spring.svg ?-slip.svg ?-seal.svg ?-bigseal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (, OC *zl?s): semantic ? ("roof") + phonetic ? (OC *?sl, "child").

Etymology

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *tsa ~ za ("child; to give birth; to take care; to be kind"). Related to:

  • ? (OC *?sl, "child, son") (also its phonetic component)
  • ? (OC *z?, "to be kind, loving")
  • ? (OC *?s?, "to nourish, to grow")
  • ? (OC *lj?, "word, term")
  • ? (OC *lj?, "word, from testimony")

Original sense (1): "to become pregnant, to give birth to, to nurture, to love" has essentially become obsolete. The sense (2) "letter, character" is either from a different root or a derivation from the sense "to produce, to generate".

Cognate with Tibetan ? (tsha bo, "nephew"), Tibetan (tsha rus, "descendant"), Tibetan (btsa', "to give birth to; to guard"), Tibetan (mdza', "kind, peaceful, friendly") (Quan, 1996).

Pronunciation

Definitions

?

  1. Chinese character; hanzi (Classifier: ?/?; ?/? c)
    ??? / ???  -  Zhège z?nme niàn?  -  How do you read this character?
  2. word; term; wording; diction
    ?????? / ??????  -  Zhè p?n cuò le.  -  This word is wrongly spelt; you've left out a letter.
  3. (computing) word
  4. handwriting; writing
    ??????  -  T? de h?n chà.  -  His handwriting is very bad.
  5. (historical) courtesy name; Chinese-style name (a name traditionally given to Chinese males at the age of 20 and females at the age of 15)
  6. (historical) to style; to give someone a courtesy name
  7. letter; symbol; character
    ??  -  m?  -  letter
    ??  -  chuàn  -  character string
  8. (calligraphy) style of handwriting; printing type
  9. (calligraphy) (a calligrapher's) calligraphy work
  10. written letter; message; correspondence
  11. receipt; contract; slip
  12. pronunciation of a character; pronunciation
  13. (colloquial) tails (side of the coin)
  14. (Cantonese, Min, Malaysia, Singapore) five minutes (derived from the locations of 1 to 12 on a clock face) (Classifier: ?/? m c)
    ??? / ??? [Cantonese]  -  saam1 go3zi6 [Jyutping]  -  fifteen minutes [i.e. when the minute hand points to 3]
    ???? / ???? [Hokkien]  -  chhit tiám nn?g j? [Pe?h-?e-j?]  -  ten past seven
    ??? / ??? [Teochew]  -  zêg8 gai5 ri7 [Peng'im]  -  five minutes [i.e. when the minute hand points to 1]
    ?????? [Guangzhou Cantonese, trad.]
    ?????? [Guangzhou Cantonese, simp.]
    ji4 gaa1 hai6 jat1 dim2 sap6 jat1 go3zi6. [Jyutping]
    It's five to two now. (Literally: It's one o'clock [and] eleven five-minutes.)
    ??????? [Guangzhou Cantonese, trad.]
    ??????? [Guangzhou Cantonese, simp.]
    zaang1 saam1 go3zi6 dou3 luk6 dim2 [Jyutping]
    a quarter to six (Literally: Missing three five-minutes to six o'clock)
  15. + to give birth to; to deliver a baby; to bring into the world
  16. + to be pregnant; to be carrying a baby
  17. +(historical, of a girl) to be betrothed; to be allowed to marry
    ?? / ??  -  dàigu?zh?ng  -  to stay in the boudoir waiting to be betrothed
  18. + to bring up; to raise; to rear (a child)
  19. (obsolete or Guzhang Waxiang) to love; to cherish; to care very much for
  20. (Luxi Waxiang) to envy; to be jealous of; to admire
  21. + to educate; to teach; to instruct
  22. + to govern; to administer
  23. A surname​.

Synonyms

Compounds

Descendants

Sino-Xenic (?):
  • -> Japanese:?(?) (ji)
  • -> Korean:? (?, ja)
  • -> Vietnamese: t? (?)

Others:

  • -> Tai: *:? ("name")
    • Lao: (s, "name")
    • Thai: ? (ch, "name")
  • -> Vietnamese: ch? ("script; letter; writing; word"), ch?a ("to be pregnant")

References


Japanese

Kanji

?

(grade 1 "Ky?iku" kanji)

Readings

  • Go-on: ? (ji, J?y?)
  • Kan-on: ? (shi)
  • Kun: (aza, ?, J?y?); (azana, ?); (umu); (masu)

Etymology 1

Kanji in this term
?
?
Grade: 1
on'yomi

Borrowed from Middle Chinese ? with the southern pronunciation (kango, Go-on).

Pronunciation

Noun

?(?) o (ji

  1. letter, character
    ?(?)??()??(?)??
    Kono ji wa nan to yomimasu ka?
    How do you pronounce this character?
  2. handwriting, penmanship
    ?()?()??(?)?()?(?()?)?
    Kanojo wa ji ga umai (kitanai).
    She has good (bad) handwriting.
Derived terms

Counter

?(?) o (-ji

  1. letters, characters
    40()?(?)?(?)?()??(?)?
    Yonj?-ji inai de kaite kudasai.
    Please write it down in 40 characters or fewer.

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Shortened form of (azana, "a section of a village") of ancient Japanese origin (wago).

Pronunciation

Noun

?() o (aza

  1. a section of a village
Derived terms

Etymology 3

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Of ancient Japanese origin (wago).

Pronunciation

Noun

?() o (azana

  1. courtesy name
    ?()(?())??()??()?(?)?[2]
    Takugun (Kahoku-sh?) no hito. Azana wa Gentoku.
    Of Zhuo Commandery. Courtesy name Xuande.
  2. nickname
  3. a section of a village

References

  1. ? 1.01.11.2 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN
  2. ? 2.02.12.2 1998, NHK (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), T?ky?: NHK, ->ISBN

Korean

Etymology

From Middle Chinese ? (MC d?z?H).

Historical readings

Pronunciation

  • Phonetic hangeul: [?]

Hanja

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

? (eumhun ? (geulja ja))

  1. Hanja form? of ? ("letter; character").

Compounds

References

  • ( ) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, ?/?. [3]

Vietnamese

Han character

? (t?, ch?)

  1. character, letter
  2. word

References

  • Thi?u Ch?u : Hán Vi?t T? ?i?n, Hà N?i, 1942
  • Tr?n V?n Chánh: T? ?i?n Hán Vi?t NXB Tr?, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
  • V? V?n Kính?i T? ?i?n Ch? Nôm, NXB V?n Ngh?, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999

Compounds


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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