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See also: ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, and ?

Translingual

Stroke order
3 strokes
Stroke order
?-order.gif

Alternative forms

  • ? (U+2F25, Kangxi radical)

Han character

? (radical 38, ?+0, 3 strokes, cangjie input ? (V), four-corner 40400, composition ???(GJKV) or ???(HT))

  1. Kangxi radical #38, ?.

Derived characters

Descendants

References

  • KangXi: page 254, character 22
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 6036
  • Dae Jaweon: page 516, character 19
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1023, character 23
  • Unihan data for U+5973

Chinese

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character ?
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
?-oracle.svg ?-bronze.svg ?-silk.svg ?-seal.svg ?-bigseal.svg

Pictogram (): a woman with breasts kneeling or standing. In modern form turned on left side: enclosed area is remnant of left breast (character's left, depicted woman's right), while right breast has disappeared. Graphically cognate to ? (m?, "mother"), which has developed similarly, but also includes dots for nipples and has retained both breasts.

Etymology 1

simp. and trad.
?
variant forms ?
Wikipedia has an article on:

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *nja-?/k ("woman").

Pronunciation 2 is an exoactive derivation of pronunciation 1 (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation 1

Definitions

?

  1. woman
    Antonyms: ? (nán)
    ??  -  n?rén  -  woman
    ??  -  n?de  -  woman; female
    • ??? [MSC, trad.]
      ??? [MSC, simp.]
      Q?ngwèn n? wèish?ngji?n zài n?r? [Pinyin]
      Excuse me, where is the ladies' lavatory?
  2. (for people) female
    => ?, ?
    ??? / ???  -  y? ge n? y?nyuán  -  an actress
    ??? / ???  -  y? ge n? shìb?ng  -  a female soldier
  3. daughter (Classifier: ?/? c; ? c)
    ??  -  n?  -  second daughter
    ?????? / ?????? [Cantonese]  -  Keoi5 hai6 ngo5 go3neoi5-2. [Jyutping]  -  She's my daughter.
  4. (Cantonese) girl; young female (Classifier: ?/? c; ? c)
    ?? / ?? [Cantonese]  -  leng3neoi5-2 [Jyutping]  -  pretty girl
  5. (Cantonese, slang) girlfriend (Classifier: ?/? c)
  6. (Cantonese, card games) queen (Classifier: ?/? c; ?/? c)
  7. (astronomy) the Girl (a Chinese constellation near Aquarius, 10th of the Twenty-Eight Mansions and part of the Black Turtle)
Synonyms
Compounds
Descendants
Sino-Xenic (?):
  • -> Japanese: ? () (jo)
  • -> Korean: ? (?, yeo)
  • -> Vietnamese: n? (?)

Pronunciation 2

Definitions

?

  1. + to give one's daughter in marriage; to give as wife

Etymology 2

For pronunciation and definitions of ? - see ? ("you").
(This character, ?, is a variant form of ?.)

Japanese

Kanji

?

(grade 1 "Ky?iku" kanji)

  1. woman
  2. daughter

Readings

Compounds

Etymology 1

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
kun'yomi

?womi1na? -> */wom?ina/ -> /wom?na/ -> /won:a/ -> /on:a/

Shift from Old Japanese womina -> omina (see below).

Now one of the standard Japanese words for "a woman".

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji onna, historical hiragana )

  1. a woman
    • 1999 July 5, "?????? [The Beheading Beauty]", in BOOSTER 3, Konami:
      ? (?)? ()? ()? ()? ()? ()?
      Sono bib? to wa urahara ni, katana de kazu?ku no kubi o hanetekita onna.
      A lady who has decapitated a great many with her katana, which is in stark contrast to her beautiful appearance.
    Antonym: ? (otoko)
  2. a wife
    Synonyms: ? (tsuma), (ny?b?)
  3. a mistress, concubine
    Synonyms: (aijin), (j?fu), ? (mekake)
  4. a maid
    Synonyms: (gejo), (joch?)
  5. a prostitute
    Synonyms: (inbaifu), (jor?), (baishunfu), (y?jo)
  6. a woman's appearance or quality
  7. a feminine object
  8. the object in a pairing which is smaller, gentler, etc. than the other
Derived terms
Idioms
Proverbs

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
kun'yomi

?womi1na? -> */wom?ina/ -> /omina/

From Old Japanese.[3]

The initial /wo/ expressed "small, youth" and contrasted with /o/ "grown, old" (as in ? (omina, "old woman")), while the medial /mi/ is cognate with ? (me, "female, woman", see below). According to Frellesvig (2010), proto-Japonic /e/ became Old Japanese [je] in final position and [i] elsewhere; analogous with PJ /o/, which became OJ [wo] in final position and [u] elsewhere (though PJ /i/ and /u/ also existed, confer Old Japanese ?'s two readings /po/ & /pu/ in Western & Eastern Old Japanese, respectively (Vovin, 2017)).

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji omina, historical hiragana )

  1. (archaic) a young woman
  2. (archaic) a woman
Derived terms

Proper noun

? (hiragana , r?maji Omina, historical hiragana )

  1. a female given name

Etymology 3

Kanji in this term
?
?
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

?me1? -> */m?e/ -> /me/

From Old Japanese,[4][5] from Proto-Japonic *mya.

Appears to be distinct from ? (?me2? -> me, "eye").

Pronunciation

Alternative forms

  • (wife): ?
  • (female): ?, ?

Noun

? (hiragana ?, r?maji me)

  1. a woman
    Antonym: ? (o)
  2. a wife
    • c. 890, Taketori Monogatari (page 3)[6]
      ...? (?)?? ()
      ...me no onna ni azukete yashinawasu.
      (please add an English translation of this example)
    Synonym: ? (tsuma)
    Antonym: ? (o)
  3. a female
    Antonym: ?, ?, ? (o)
Usage notes

Used more in compounds than on its own.

Derived terms

Etymology 4

Kanji in this term
?
Grade: 1
Irregular

?womi1na? -> */wom?ina/ -> /wom?na/ -> /wo?na/ -> /wo:na/ -> /o:na/

Variant shift from Old Japanese womina -> omina (see above).

Alternative forms

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji ?na, historical hiragana )

  1. (archaic) a young woman

Etymology 5

Kanji in this term
?
Grade: 1
Irregular

/won:a/ -> /wona/ -> /ona/

Shift from onna (see above).

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji ona, historical hiragana )

  1. (obsolete) a young woman

Etymology 6

Kanji in this term
?
Grade: 1
Irregular

/wona/ -> /wona:/ -> /ona:/

Long-pronounced form of ona (see above).

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji on?, historical hiragana )

  1. (obsolete) a young woman

Etymology 7

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
kan'on

/d?o/ -> /do/

From Middle Chinese ? (MC X, H).

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji jo, historical hiragana )

  1. a woman, especially an actress or a prostitute

Proper noun

? (hiragana , r?maji Jo, historical hiragana )

  1. (Chinese astronomy) the Girl constellation, one of the Twenty-Eight Mansions
    Synonyms: ? (Urukiboshi), (Joshuku)

Suffix

? (hiragana , r?maji -jo, historical hiragana )

  1. (historical) suffixed to names of female figures in the Edo period

See also

References

  1. ? 1.01.1 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN
  2. ? 2.02.12.2 1998, NHK (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), T?ky?: NHK, ->ISBN
  3. ^ womina at OxFord-NINJAL Corpus of Old Japanese
  4. ^ 1988, () (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), T?ky?: Shogakukan
  5. ^ mye at OxFord-NINJAL Corpus of Old Japanese
  6. ^ Horiuchi, Hideaki; Ken Akiyama (1997) Taketori Monogatari, Ise Monogatari, T?ky?: Iwanami Shoten, ->ISBN

Korean

Hanja

? (eumhun ? (gyejip nyeo), South Korea ? (gyejip yeo))

  1. Hanja form? of ? ("female; woman").

Compounds


Vietnamese

Han character

?: Hán Vi?t readings: n? (?(ni)?(l?)?(thi?t))[1][2][3][4][5], nh? (?(nh?n)?(d?)?(thi?t))[1][5]
?: Nôm readings: n?[1][2][3][6][4][5][7], n?a[1][2][3][4][5][7], n?[1][2][6][4][7], n?[1][2][3][6], n?[3][6][4][5], nh?[1][3][6], l?[2][3][6], n?a[1][3], nh?[1], n?[3]

  1. Hán t? form of n? ("female").
  2. Hán t? form of nh? ("(obsolete) you").
  3. Nôm form of n? ("debt; to owe").
  4. Nôm form of n?a ("more; further").

Compounds

References


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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