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See also: ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, and ?

Translingual

Stroke order
?-order.gif

Han character

? (radical 37, ?+1, 4 strokes, cangjie input (MK), four-corner 10430, composition ???)

Derived characters

Descendants

References

  • KangXi: page 248, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5833
  • Dae Jaweon: page 500, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 522, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5929

Chinese

simp. and trad.
?
alternative forms ?
?
?
The sky over Guangdong.
The Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests in Beijing's Temple of Heaven.
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • ? (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • Tian (English)

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character ?
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
?-bronze-shang.svg ?-oracle.svg ?-bronze-shang.svg ?-silk.svg ?-seal.svg ?-bigseal.svg

A top line representing the level above a man with outstretched arms (? ()). Ancient representations of the character depicted a man with a large head, an anthropomorphic representation of heaven.

Original meaning of the word is "sky". Such concept is difficult to depict with a pictogram, hence the current form. Perhaps influenced by the glyph, the character was frequently glossed in Old Chinese documents with ? ("crown of the head"), and such had led to incorrect hypotheses which regarded ? (ti?n) as a derivation of ? or ?, "top (of the head/hill)".

Etymology

This character was previously reconstructed to have a /*t?/-initial in Old Chinese, but this hypothesis has been largely discounted in recent reconstructions, in light of evidence from early Chinese accounts of dialectal pronunciations, transcription of other languages, as well as cognate/derived characters within Chinese, which has all pointed to a voiceless resonant initial /*l?-/ in Old Chinese. The book Shiming showed that, by c. 200 CE, this initial had already produced dialectal variation in the pronunciation: People in central-western China pronounced it with the back of the tongue, like ? (MC henX), while people in eastern China pronounced it with the tip of the tongue, like ? (MC tnX). An old northwestern dialect variant survives as ? (MC hen, "God of the Zoroastrians"), and the word (MC t?en uk?, "India") was used to transcribe Old Persian *Hind-uka ("India").

Further etymology is unknown. While it was reconstructed with a /*t?-/ initial, it was frequently compared with tengri, the name for God in early Turkic and Mongolic peoples' languages. This now appears unlikely. The only certain external cognate is the Central Bai (a language closely related to Chinese) word heinl ("sky, heaven") /x/.

Pronunciation

Definitions

?

  1. sky; heavens; heavenly; celestial
    • ??  -  ti?nk?ng  -  sky
    ????  -  Ti?n h?i le.  -  It's getting dark.
  2. (mythology or religion) heaven as the abode of the gods or the blessed departed; heavenly.
    • ??  -  shàngti?n  -  to go up to the sky; to go to heaven
    • ??  -  ti?n  -  Heaven's will
  3. (mythology or religion) Heaven as an impersonal deity, often translated as God.
    • ??  -  ti?nzh?  -  God
    • ??  -  l?oti?n  -  god
    • ????!  -  W? de ti?n a!  -  Oh my God!
    • ??????  -  Ti?n zhù zì zhù zh?.  -  God helps those who help themselves.
  4. top; overhead
    • ?? / ??  -  ti?nqiáo  -  footbridge
    • ??  -  ti?nchu?ng  -  sunroof
  5. weather; climate
    • ?? / ??  -  ti?n  -  weather
    • ??,??? [MSC, trad.]
      ??,??? [MSC, simp.]
      Rúgu? ti?n qíng, w?men jiù qù sànbù. [Pinyin]
      If the weather clears, we'll go for a walk.
  6. day (24 hours)
    ??  -  j?nti?n  -  today
    ??  -  míngti?n  -  tomorrow
    ??  -  s?n ti?n  -  three days
  7. +day (as opposed to night)
    ??  -  báiti?n  -  daytime
  8. +season
    • ??????????? [MSC, trad. and simp.]
      ch?nti?n, xiàti?n, qi?ti?n, d?ngti?n [Pinyin]
      spring, summer, autumn, winter
  9. nature
    • ?? / ??  -  ti?nz?i  -  natural disaster
  10. natural; innate
    • ??  -  ti?nsh?ng  -  innate
    • ??  -  ti?nxìng  -  nature, personality
    • ??  -  ti?ncái  -  genius

Synonyms

Compounds


Japanese

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja

Kanji

?

(grade 1 "Ky?iku" kanji)

  1. heavens, sky

Readings

  • Go-on: (ten, J?y?)
  • Kan-on: (ten, J?y?)
  • Kun: (ama, ?, J?y?, uncommon); (ame, ?, J?y?)
  • Nanori: (kami); (sora); (taka); (takashi); (nama); ? (te); (aki); (amo)

Compounds

Etymology 1

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. A bound form only appearing in compounds.[1][2] Compare the formation of ? (ma, bound form in compounds) and ? (me, standalone form), ? (ta, bound form in compounds) and ? (te, standalone form).

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji ama)

  1. (archaic) the sky, the heavens
  2. the area above a kitchen stove:
    1. where the smoke collects in an old kitchen using a wood-burning stove
    2. a shelf or shelves above the stove
  3. (archaic) heaven
Derived terms

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
kun'yomi

?ame2? -> */am?j/ -> /ame/

From Old Japanese as a sound shift from ama above.[1] Likely derived by fusion of ama + ? (i, emphatic nominative particle), similar to the derivation of other words such as ? (kami, from kamu + i), ? (me, from ma + i), etc.

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji ame)

  1. (archaic) the sky, the heavens
  2. (archaic) heaven
  3. (archaic) the roof of a palace
Idioms
Derived terms

Etymology 3

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese ? (MC t?en, "sky; heavens"). Compare modern Mandarin reading ti?n.

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji ten)

  1. the sky, the heavens
  2. heaven
  3. (metaphorically) the gods, providence, fate
    ? ()?? ()?
    ten no atae
    gift from the gods
Idioms
Derived terms

References

  1. ? 1.01.1 1988, () (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), T?ky?: Shogakukan
  2. ? 2.02.12.2 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN
  3. ? 3.03.1 1998, NHK (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), T?ky?: NHK, ->ISBN

Korean

Etymology

From Middle Chinese ? (MC t?en). Recorded as Middle Korean ? (Yale: thyen) in Hunmong Jahoe (? / ?), 1527.

Hanja

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

? (eumhun ? (haneul cheon))

  1. Hanja form? of ? ("sky; heaven").

Synonyms

  • ? (? (geon))

Antonyms

  • ? (? (ji))
  • ? (? (gon))

Compounds

References

  • ( ) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, ?/?. [1]

Vietnamese

Han character

?: Hán Vi?t readings: thiên[1][2][3]
?: Nôm readings: thiên[1][2][3], thiêng[1]

  1. Hán t? form of thiên ("sky; heaven").

Compounds

References


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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