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See also: ?, ?, ?, ?, and ?

Translingual

Stroke order
?-order.gif

Han character

? (radical 37 ?+0, 3 strokes, cangjie input ? (K), four-corner 40030/40800, composition ???)

  1. Kangxi radical #37, ?.
Derived characters
Related characters
  • ? ? ? ? ? ? (other characters derived from a similar figure shape)

References

  • KangXi: page 248, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5831
  • Dae Jaweon: page 492, character 25
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 520, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5927

Chinese

simp. and trad.
?

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character ?
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu bamboo and silk script Qin bamboo and wooden slip script Shizhoupian script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
?-bronze-shang.svg ?-oracle.svg ?-bronze.svg ?-bronze-warring.svg ?-silk.svg ?-slip.svg ?-zhou.svg ?-seal.svg ?-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series (?) (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
? *da:l, *da:ds
? *da:ds, *da:ds
? *t?a:ds, *da:ds, *djads
? *t?a:ds
? *t?a:ds
? *da:ds, *t?a:d
? *da:ds, *de:ds
? *da:ds, *de:ds
? *t?e:ds
? *de:ds

Ideogram (): a person ? with arms stretched out as far as possible, implying the meaning of big/great/large.

Compare with ?, which is a man with bent legs with the meaning of weak.

Compare also ?, which is a man with arms outstretched and a crest or tattoo on his chest denoting culture or language, and to ?, which is a man with arms outstretched and leaning to side (running), denoting youth.

Etymology

Three pronunciations can be found in Modern Standard Chinese:

  1. Modern , from Middle Chinese d?L, from Old Chinese *l?a:ts. The phonological development from Old Chinese to Middle Chinese is irregular. Original sense: "big" (Shijing). Derived senses: "size" (Mozi), "thick" (Zhuangzi), "to respect" (Mengzi), "to respect" (Xunzi), "to extol" (Gongyang Zhuan), "to exaggerate" (Classic of Rites), "arrogant" (Guoyu), "good" (I Ching), "(of time) long" (Erya), "senior" (Shijing).
  2. Modern dài, from Middle Chinese d?iL, from Old Chinese *l?a:ts. This Middle Chinese pronunciation-preserving (i.e. literary) pronunciation occurs only in compounds such as (dàifu, "doctor") and (dàiwang, "(in operas, old novels) king; ringleader").
  3. Modern tài, from Middle Chinese tiL, from Old Chinese *la:ts. This is the ancient form of ? (tài, "too, excessively") and is obsolete in modern languages.

Pronunciation 2), the diphthong reading, is traditionally regarded as the correct one. However, the monophthong reading 1) has been recorded as early as Han Dynasty, and Sui-Tang rhyme books record both. Both readings are reflected in Sino-xenic readings in non-Sinitic languages, although the diphthong readings dominate in compounds. Axel Schüssler postulates that all pronunciations can eventually be traced back to liquid initials, i.e. 1,2) **la:ts, 3) **hla:ts.

The three pronunciations are cognate. Within Chinese, they are cognate with ? (OC *t?a:ds, "too, excessively"), ? (OC *t?a:ds, "big"), ? (OC *l'a:n?, "big, magniloquent, ridiculous"). There are no unambiguous Tibeto-Burman cognates. Proto-Tibeto-Burman *taj ("big"), from which came Written Tibetan (mthe bo, "thumb"), Nung t ("big, large, great"), Mikir t?è, ket?è ("id."), Burmese (tai, "very"), is often compared with. There is no final -s in the Tibeto-Burman words, but a -y, which, according to James Matisoff, "indicates emergent quality in stative verbs". Also compare Chinese ? (OC *?l'a:l, "many, much"), ? (OC *ta:, "all").

Pronunciation 1

Definitions

?

  1. of great size; big; large; huge
    Antonyms: ? (xi?o)
    • ?????! / ?????!  -  Zhè ge tài le!  -  This is too big!
  2. big; great
    • ??????? [MSC, trad.]
      ??????? [MSC, simp.]
      Zh?ng M?i gu?nxì y? y?u h?n g?ishàn. [Pinyin]
      Relations between China and America have improved greatly.
  3. great of its kind
    • ????  -  Zuóti?n xià y?.  -  There was heavy rain yesterday.
  4. in a extreme manner; greatly (with a monosyllabled verb)
    ??  -  k?  -  to cry violently
    ? / ?  -  ch?y?j?ng  -  to be greatly shocked
  5. main; major
    • ?????? [MSC, trad.]
      ?????? [MSC, simp.]
      T?men ji?ng ch? y?zhí k?i dào ménk?u. [Pinyin]
      They drove right up to the main gate.
    • ????? [MSC, trad.]
      ????? [MSC, simp.]
      T? shì y?ji? shíyóu g?ngs? de g?d?ng. [Pinyin]
      He is a major stockholder in an oil company.
  6. well-known; successful (only applied to some occupations)
    ? / ?  -  sh?f?ji?  -  a well-known calligrapher
  7. mature; grown up
    => ?
    • ?????  -  N? du? le?  -  How old are you?
    • ?????  -  T? b? t? .  -  She is older than him.
    • ????????? [Cantonese, trad.]
      ????????? [Cantonese, simp.]
      Nei5 zek3 gau2 hai6 gam3daai6-2 gaa3 laa3. [Jyutping]
      Your dog isn't going to grow any older.
  8. 45th tetragram of the Taixuanjing
  9. (dialectal) father
  10. (dialectal) father's elder or younger brother
  11. (Cantonese) small
    • ?? [Cantonese]  -  gam3daai6-1 [Jyutping]  -  so puny
  12. (Cantonese, slang) to intimidate; to threaten
    • ????? [Cantonese]  -  Nei5daai6 ngo5 aa4? [Jyutping]  -  Are you trying to intimidate me?
  13. (Cantonese, euphemistic) number two
  14. Short for / (dàxué, "university"). Used only in the abbreviation of the name.
    ??  -  B?i   -  Peking University

Compounds

Pronunciation 2

Definitions

?

  1. Only used in (dàifu, "doctor").
  2. Only used in (Dàchéng, "Daicheng, Hebei").
  3. Only used in (dàwáng, "(in operas, old novels) king; ringleader").

Compounds

Pronunciation 3

For pronunciation and definitions of ? - see ? ("too; so at the end of the sentence for emphasis}}; etc.").
(This character, ?, is an ancient form of ?.)

Descendants

Sino-Xenic (?):
  • Japanese: ? () (dai); ? () (tai)
  • Korean: ? (?, dae)
  • Vietnamese: i (?)

Japanese

Kanji

?

(grade 1 "Ky?iku" kanji)

Readings

Compounds

Etymology 1

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
on'yomi

Pronunciation

Prefix

? (hiragana , r?maji dai-)

  1. big, large
    ? ()
    dai-pinchi
    tremendous crisis
    ? ()
    dai-hitto suru
    to become a smash hit
  2. the large part of
  3. university
  4. (religion) arch-
Usage notes

This is often the first half two-character shorthand name of universities, for example (Tokyo University, "T?dai")

Derived terms

Etymology 2

Prefix

? (hiragana , r?maji ?-, historical hiragana )

  1. big; great
    ? ()? (?)? (?)?
    ?-baka na
    extremely foolish

References

  1. ^ 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), T?ky?: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean

Hanja

? o (dae, tae)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): ?, ?
    • Name (hangeul):
  1. Large.

Compounds

  • (, bangdae)
  • (, daeeumsun, "labia majora")
  • ? (?, jeoksoseongdae)
  • ? (?, jeon-gwondaesa)

Mulam

Adjective

? (lo4)

  1. big

Vietnamese

Han character

References


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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