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See also: ? and ?

Translingual

Stroke order
6 strokes
Stroke order
?-order.gif

Han character

? (radical 36, ?+3, 6 strokes, cangjie input ? (NINI), four-corner 27207, composition ???)

Derived characters

Descendants

References

  • KangXi: page 246, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5756
  • Dae Jaweon: page 489, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 862, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+591A

Chinese

simp. and trad.
?
alternative forms ?

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character ?
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
?-oracle.svg ?-bronze.svg ?-seal.svg ?-bigseal.svg

Ideogrammic compound () - two pieces of meat (?). In the bronze script, ? was corrupted into ? due to visual similarity. The form with ? was inherited in later scripts.

Chi (2010) suggests that meat is scarce in ancient times, so two pieces of meat is a lot, citing a passage from Mencius:

????? [MSC, trad. and simp.][? expand/hide]
Q?shí zh? k?y? shí ròu y?. [Pinyin]
Persons of seventy years may eat meat.

Chang Ping-chuan suggests that it is the duplicative nature of the character that gives the meaning of "many", just like in ? ("forest"), from ? ("tree; wood").

Etymology

Cognate with ? (OC *tja:, *tja, "many; all"), ? (OC *ta:, "all"), ? (OC *hlja?s, "many") (Schuessler, 2007). Also compare ? (OC *da:ds, *da:ds, "large").

Related to Proto-Tai *?la:j? ("many, much"), whence Thai ? (l?ai, "many").

Pronunciation

Definitions

?

  1. many; much; a lot of; numerous
    Antonyms: ? (sh?o)
    ?????  -  Ji?shàng y?u h?n du? rén.  -  There is a lot of people in the street
  2. (after an amount) over; and more; more than
    ??? / ???  -  li?ng nián du?  -  more than two years
  3. (used in comparison structure , ) much more; a lot more; far more
    ???????  -  T? b? w? g?o de du?.  -  He is a lot taller than I am.
    ????  -  Bìngrén j?nti?n h?o du? le.  -  The patient is much better today.
  4. more
    ??? / ???  -  W? y?ngg?i du? yùndòng.  -  I should exercise more.
    ???? / ???? [Cantonese]  -  kam2do1 zoeng1 pei5 [Jyutping]  -  put on one more blanket
    ??,?????? [MSC, trad. and simp.]
    J?nti?n b? zuóti?n l?ng, d?i du? chu?n y? jiàn wàitào. [Pinyin]
    Today is colder than yesterday, so you have to put on one more jacket.
    ????? [Cantonese, trad.]
    ????? [Cantonese, simp.]
    uk1 kei5do1 zo2 jat1 go3 jan4 [Jyutping]
    the house has a new member
  5. extra; in excess
    ????,????????? [Cantonese, trad.]
    ????,????????? [Cantonese, simp.]
    Keoi5 zan1 hai6 hou2 ji6 zeoi3, jam2do1 loeng5 bui1 be1 zau2 zau6 lam3 zo2 laa3. [Jyutping]
    He gets drunk really easily. He passed out after drinking a few extra glasses of beer.
  6. (used in question) how; how much; what
    ???????? [MSC, trad.]
    ???????? [MSC, simp.]
    N? dào xuéxiào yào z?u du? yu?n de jùlí? [Pinyin]
    What distance do you have to walk to school ?
    ????  -  N? du? g?o?  -  How tall are you?
  7. (emphasis in exclamations) so; how; what
    ????!  -  Kàn t? du? piàoliàng a!  -  Look how pretty she is!
    ?????! [MSC, trad.]
    ?????! [MSC, simp.]
    T? dài de màoz? du? k?'ài ya! [Pinyin]
    What an adorable hat she is wearing! / The hat she is wearing is so adorable!
  8. to have a lot
  9. to have more; to have too much; to have too many
    ??????,????? [MSC, trad.]
    ??????,????? [MSC, simp.]
    T? m?i le sì zh?ng piào, du? le y? zh?ng. [Pinyin]
    He bought four tickets, which was one too many.
  10. (Cantonese) few; little
    ??? [Cantonese]  -  gam3doe1 doe1 [Jyutping]  -  just this much (meaning "just very few")
  11. (Cantonese) Short for (du?shì, "toast").

Usage notes

  • (over, more than): When the number is smaller or equal to 10, ? can be put after the measure word. If it is bigger than ten, ? has to be put before the measure word.
  • (more): Placing ? after the verb is correct but it is less natural than placing it before.

Synonyms

Compounds


Japanese

Kanji

?

(grade 2 "Ky?iku" kanji)

  1. many, much

Readings

(Can we verify(+) this pronunciation?)

Compounds

Derived terms

Prefix

? (hiragana ?, r?maji ta-)

  1. multi-
    ? (?)? ()? (?)? (?)? ()
    tagengojisho
    multilingual dictionary

Korean

Hanja

? (eumhun ? (maneul da))

  1. many, a lot of

Compounds

  • (, dagukjeok)
  • (, dagu)
  • (, daryeok)
  • (, dabun)
  • (, dase)
  • (, dabu)
  • (, dacheo)
  • (, daheng)
  • (, dasa)
  • (, dageop)
  • (, dasu)
  • (, dasugyeol)
  • (, dayang)
  • (, dabok)

Okinawan

Kanji

?

(grade 2 "Ky?iku" kanji)

Readings


Vietnamese

Han character

? (?a, nh?t)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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