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See also: ?

Translingual

Stroke order
10 strokes
Stroke order
?-order.gif

Han character

? (radical 35, ?+7, 10 strokes, cangjie input ? (MUHE), four-corner 10247, composition ???(GJK) or ???(HT))

Derived characters

References

  • KangXi: page 245, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5720
  • Dae Jaweon: page 485, character 29
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 869, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+590F

Chinese

simp. and trad.
?
variant forms

Glyph origin

In the oracle bone script, it was an ideogrammic compound (): ? ("sun") + ? ("head; man") - man under the scorching sun; summer.

Various variants were seen in the bronze inscriptions from the Spring and Autumn period. ? ("foot") was often added to the bottom of the man. Additionally, in the form shown above, the ? was removed and ? ("two hands") was added. The seal script inherits its form from this form, with ? replaced with the related ?.

Various forms were also seen from the Warring States period. The bamboo and silk script above shows a common form: ? + ? + ?. The "ancient script" () from Shuowen (labelled as the large seal script) has deviated significantly, with ? becoming the related ?. The top part may be a corruption of ?.

The current form is simplified from the seal script, with the removal of ? and the legs from ?.

Etymology 1

"great; Xia Dynasty; China; Chinese"
Possibly related to ? (OC *kra:?, *kra:s, "great"), ? (OC *kra:?, "great") and ? (OC *sra:s, *?ra:?, "big house") (Wang, 1980). Shi (2000) and Mair (2013) relate this word to Tibetan (rgya, "great; wide; width; size; expanse; China").
"magnificent colours; variegated"
The sense "variegated" may be of a different origin. Compare Proto-Sino-Tibetan *Kr?(H) ("variegated") (Starostin), whence Tibetan (bkra, "variegated; bright; radiant; splendid"), Tibetan (khra, "many-coloured; variegated; mottled; striped") and Burmese ? (kya:, "variegated; striped; chequered"). Possibly related to ? (OC *?ra:, "horse with mixed red and white colour").

Pronunciation

Definitions

?

  1. (~?) (historical) the Xia dynasty (2070 BCE - 1600 BCE)
  2. +(by extension) China; Chinese
  3. +great; grand; magnificent
  4. +magnificent colours; resplendent colours; variegated
  5. +Alternative form of ?/? (shà, "big house").
  6. A surname​.

Synonyms

  • (the Xia dynasty):
  • (Xiàdài)
  • (Xiàhòu)
  • (Xiàhòushì)
  • (Xiàcháo)
  • (Xiàshì)
  • (Xià Wángcháo)

See also

Dynasties () in Chinese history
Name Time period Divisions
Xia
? (~?, ~?)
2070 - 1600 BCE
Shang
? (~?, ~?)
? (~?, ~?)
1600 - 1046 BCE
Zhou
? (~?, ~?)
1046 - 256 BCE Western Zhou
Eastern Zhou
/
Spring and Autumn period
Warring States period
/
Qin
? (~?, ~?)
221 - 206 BCE
Han
?/? (~?, ~?)
206 BCE - 220 CE Western Han
/
Xin
? (~?)
Eastern Han
/
Three Kingdoms
/
220 - 280 CE Wei
?
Shu
?
Wu
?/?
Jin
?/? (~?, ~?)
265 - 420 CE Western Jin
/
Eastern Jin
/
Southern and Northern dynasties
420 - 589 CE Northern dynasties
Northern Wei
Western Wei
Eastern Wei
/
Northern Zhou
Northern Qi
/
Southern dynasties
Liu Song
/
Southern Qi
/
Liang
? (~?, ~?)
Chen
?/? (~?, ~?)
Sui
? (~?, ~?)
581 - 618 CE
Tang
? (~?, ~?)
618 - 907 CE
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
?/?
907 - 960 CE
Liao
?/? (~?, ~?)
907 - 1125 CE
Song
? (~?, ~?)
960 - 1279 CE Northern Song
Southern Song
Western Xia
1038 - 1227 CE
Jin
? (~?, ~?)
1115 - 1234 CE
Western Liao
/
1124 - 1218 CE
Yuan
? (~?, ~?)
1271 - 1368 CE
Ming
? (~?, ~?)
1368 - 1644 CE
Qing
? (~?, ~?)
1636 - 1912 CE

Compounds

Etymology 2

Pronunciation

Definitions

?

  1. summer (season)
See also
Seasons in Chinese · (sìjì, "four seasons") (layout · text)
? (ch?n, "spring") ? (xià, "summer") ? (qi?, "fall; autumn") ? (d?ng, "winter")

Compounds

Etymology 3

Pronunciation

Definitions

?

  1. +Alternative form of ?/? (ji?).
  2. Used in /.

Compounds

  • /

References


Japanese

Kanji

?

(grade 2 "Ky?iku" kanji)

  1. summer
  2. Xia dynasty
  3. China

Readings

  • Go-on: ? (ge, J?y?, uncommon)
  • Kan-on: ? (ka, J?y?)
  • Kun: (natsu, ?, J?y?)

Compounds

Etymology 1

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 2
kun'yomi

/natu/ -> /nat?su/

From Old Japanese.

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji natsu)

  1. summer (season)
    Synonym: , (kaki)
    Hyponyms: ,
Derived terms
Proverbs
See also
Seasons in Japanese · ? (?)? (?) (shiki, "four seasons") (layout · text)
? () (haru, "spring") ? () (natsu, "summer") ? () (aki, "fall; autumn") ? () (fuyu, "winter")

Proper noun

? (hiragana , r?maji Natsu)

  1. a female given name
  2. a surname

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
?
?
Grade: 2
goon

From Middle Chinese ? (MC aH). The goon reading, so likely the initial borrowing.

Also used in the Man'y?sh? (759 CE) as (shakuon) kana for ?ge1?.

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana ?, r?maji ge)

  1. (Buddhism) summer according to the lunisolar calendar; the ninety days starting from the sixteenth day of the fourth month until the fifteenth day of the seventh month
Derived terms
See also

Etymology 3

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Kanji in this term
?
?
Grade: 2
kan'on

From Middle Chinese ? (MC aX).

The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing.

Proper noun

? (hiragana ?, r?maji Ka)

  1. the Xia dynasty (first dynasty of China)
  2. Short for (Daika): Xia, one of the Sixteen Kingdoms
  3. Short for (Seika): Western Xia, an empire during the Song dynasty
  4. a surname
  5. a male or female given name

References

  1. ? 1.01.1 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN
  2. ^ 1998, NHK (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), T?ky?: NHK, ->ISBN

Korean

Hanja

? o (ha) (hangeul ?, revised ha, McCune–Reischauer ha)

  1. summer

Compounds

See also


Vietnamese

Han character

? (h?, )

  1. summer

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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