%E5%9F%8E
Get %E5%9F%8E essential facts below. View Videos or join the %E5%9F%8E discussion. Add %E5%9F%8E to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
%E5%9F%8E

Translingual

Stroke order
9 strokes

Han character

? (radical 32, ?+6, 9 strokes, cangjie input ? (GIHS), four-corner 43150, composition ???)

Derived characters

References

  • KangXi: page 229, character 32
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5086
  • Dae Jaweon: page 465, character 22
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 438, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+57CE

Chinese

simp. and trad.
?
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • ? (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • ? () (Cantonese)
  • siâ? (Min Nan)

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character ?
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
?-bronze.svg ?-silk.svg ?-seal.svg ?-bigseal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (, OC *dje?): semantic ? ("soil") + phonetic ? (OC *dje?).

Etymology

Cognate with ? (OC *dje?, "to complete"), ? (OC *dje?, "to hold with a receptacle"), ? (OC *dje?s, "abundant; flourishing"), as ? (OC *dje?, "city wall") was made of filled-in or stamped earth (Schuessler, 2007). See ? for more.

Pronunciation

Definitions

?

  1. (historical) fort; castle
  2. defensive wall; fortification
  3. fortified settlement
  4. (by extension) any city or town
  5. municipality
  6. A surname​.

See also

  • ? (c?n)

Compounds

Descendants

Sino-Xenic (?):
  • -> Japanese: ?() (j?)
  • -> Korean: ? (?, seong)
  • -> Vietnamese: thành (?)

Others:

  • -> Lao: (s?ang)
  • -> Lü: (tseng)
  • -> Northern Thai: ?
  • -> Thai: (chiiang)
  • -> Zhuang: singz

References


Japanese

Kanji

?

(grade 6 "Ky?iku" kanji)

Readings

  • Go-on: (j?, J?y?) (zyau, historical)
  • Kan-on: (sei)
  • Kun: ? (ki, ?); (shiro, ?, J?y?); (gusuku, ?); (shiki, ?)
  • Nanori: (iku); (gaki); ? (ki); (kuni); (gushiku); (gusuku); (shiki); (suku); (zei); (tachi); (nari)

Compounds

Etymology 1

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
? (shiro, gusuku, ki, shiki, j?): a castle.
Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 4
kun'yomi

Derivation unknown. The shiro reading for this character appears in 794 C.E. when the (Yamashiro) region was renamed [1], by Emperor Kanmu, thus applying the shiro reading to the ? kanji for the first time.

Pronunciation

Noun

?() o (shiro

  1. castle
Usage notes

The shiro reading may be used most often when this term appears as a standalone noun.

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 4
kun'yomi

Borrowed from older Okinawan. The final ku may be cognate with mainland Japanese ki (see below).

Pronunciation

Noun

?() o (gusuku

  1. (obsolete, Okinawa) castle
    • 1531-1623: Omoro S?shi
      ? ? ? ? ? ?
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
Usage notes

Not used in isolation in modern Japanese. This term remains as an element in various place names.

Etymology 3

Kanji in this term
?
?
Grade: 4
kun'yomi
Alternative spelling
?

ki2: [k?] > [ki]

From Old Japanese, from Baekje ? (*k?, "walled settlement").[3]

Pronunciation

Noun

?(?) o (ki

  1. (archaic) a structure surrounded by a moat or walls: a fortress, castle
    • c. 759, Man'y?sh? (book 20, poem 4331)
      ?[?]? ? ? ?? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?[?] [?] ? ? ? ? ?
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    • 787-824: Nihon Ry?iki (preface, page 201)
      ? ? ? ? ?? ? [...]
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)

Etymology 4

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 4
kun'yomi
Alternative spelling

Originally a compound of ? (shi, "stone") +‎ ? (ki, "castle, fortress").

Pronunciation

Noun

?() o (shiki

  1. (archaic) a castle, a fortress

Etymology 5

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 4
goon

/zjau/ -> */:/ -> /do:/

From Middle Chinese ? (MC di). Compare modern Min Nan reading siâ?.

Pronunciation

Noun

?() o (j? (zyau)?

  1. a castle, a fortress
    ?()?()?()
    Morioka-j?
    Morioka Castle

See also

References

  1. ^ 1988, () (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), T?ky?: Shogakukan
  2. ? 2.0 2.1 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN
  3. ^ John Bentley (2000), "New Look at Paekche and Korean: Data from Nihon shoki", in Language Research[1], volume 36, issue 2, Seoul National University, pages 417--443

Korean

Etymology

From Middle Chinese ? (MC di).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 (Yale: ssyèng)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[3] (Yale: cás) (Yale: syèng)

Pronunciation

Hanja

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

? (eumhun ? ? (jae seong))

  1. Hanja form? of ? ("castle").

Compounds

References

  • ( ) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, ?/?. [4]

Okinawan

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji gushiku)

  1. a gusuku (Ryukyuan castle)
  2. a word used in placenames
    ? ()? ()
    Nakagushiku kara yaib?n.
    I am from Nakagusuku.

Vietnamese

Han character

?: Hán Nôm readings: thành, nh?t

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

%E5%9F%8E
 



 



 
Music Scenes