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See also: ? and ?

Translingual

Stroke order
16 strokes

Alternative forms

  • In all regions except Japan, the middle component is written ?, which is the orthodox form found in the Kangxi dictionary.
  • In Japanese shinjitai, the middle component is written ? instead of ? (the upper right dot is missing). Due to Han unification, both forms are encoded using the same code point. This character may appear to be different depending on the font used.
  • A CJK compatibility ideograph exists at U+FA38 for the ky?jitai form of ? which has ? as the middle component.
  • Another character, ? (U+20F96) exists for the historical form found in the Ming dynasty Chinese dictionary which is similar to Japanese shinjitai.

Han character

? (radical 30, ?+13 in Chinese and Korean, ?+12 in Japanese, 16 strokes in Chinese and Korean, 15 strokes in Japanese, cangjie input (RRIKR), four-corner 66663, composition ???(GHTKV) or ????(J))

Derived characters

References

  • KangXi: page 210, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 4349
  • Dae Jaweon: page 432, character 26
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 690, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+5668

Chinese

simp. and trad.
?
alternative forms
 
?
?
?
?
? second round simplified
?
?
?
?
?

?
?

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character ?
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
?-bronze.svg ?-seal.svg ?-bigseal.svg

Uncertain.

Possibly an ideogrammic compound (): a ? ("dog") guarding four ? ("vessel") - containers, or a phonetically borrowed character for the modern meanings with the original meaning being "to bark" (Compare ?).

Pronunciation

Definitions

?

  1. device; tool; utensil; ware
    ??  -    -  utensil
  2. (medicine, biology) organ
    ??  -  gu?n  -  organ
  3. capacity; tolerance
    ??  -  liàng  -  tolerance
  4. talent; ability
    ??  -  w?nchéng  -  [idiom] A great talent takes time to mature.
  5. (literary, or in compounds) to think highly of
    ??  -  zhòng  -  to regard highly

Synonyms

  • (device):
  • (qìjù)
  • (qìwù)
  • (qìyòng) (literary)
  • (qìm?n)
  • (g?ngjù)
  • (yòngjù)
  • (yòngqì) (literary)
  • (organ): (qìgu?n)
  • (to think highly of):
  • (qìzhòng) (a junior or subordinate)
  • ???/??? (b? ji?odi?n fàng zài)
  • / (zhèngshì)
  • (zhùzhòng)
  • (kànzhòng)
  • / (zhòngshì)

Compounds

Descendants

  • -> Korean: (geureut, "receptacle; bowl; capacity; tolerance") (Pan, 2006)

References


Japanese

Ryakuji for ?.

Kanji

?

(grade 4 "Ky?iku" kanjishinjitai kanji, ky?jitai form ?)

Readings

  • Go-on: ? (ki, J?y?)
  • Kan-on: ? (ki, J?y?)
  • Kun: (utsuwa, ?, J?y?)

Etymology 1

Kanji in this term
?
?
Grade: 4
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese ? (khijH, "vessel; instrument").

Pronunciation

  • On'yomi
  • When used as a suffix, the resulting term has a downstep either right before, or one mora before, the ki.
  • If the preceding syllable has only one mora (as in ga or tsu), the downstep occurs just after that mora:
("unglazed earthenware"): ?? [gá?kì]
(k?ki yonetsuki, "air pre-heater"): ???? [kùúkí yónétsú?kì]
  • If the preceding syllable has two morae (as in zen or tei), the downstep occurs between the two morae:
(anzenki, "safety cut-out"): ??? [à?zékì]
(enko sokuteiki, "cyclometer"): ??? [è?kó sókúté?èkì]

Affix

? (hiragana ?, r?maji ki)

  1. device; instrument
  2. container; vessel
Usage notes

Often used interchangeably with ? (ki) in compounds to indicate "machine", with the subtlety that ? implies a smaller device, perhaps hand-held, while ? implies a larger machine, such as an airplane. Compare (shokki, "tableware") and (hik?ki, "airplane"), or homophones (kikai, "machine", generally larger) and (kikai, "machine, tool", generally smaller).

Derived terms

Suffix

? (hiragana ?, r?maji -ki)

  1. device; instrument
Usage notes

Can attach to various nouns that can be used as verbs, to indicate a device for carrying out the action. Examples:

  • (keiry?, "measurement, measuring, gauging") + ? (-ki) = (keiry?ki, "a measuring device, a gauge")
  • ? (ny?, "urine") + ? (-ki) = (ny?ki, "urinal")
  • (inji, "print, type", literally "stamp + character") + ? (-ki) = (injiki, "a printer", a smaller device, such as a handheld number and letter puncher)
Derived terms

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 4
kun'yomi

/ut?supa/ -> /ut?su?a/ -> /ut?suwa/

From Old Japanese.[1] Cognate with ? (utsuo, ancient utsupo, utsubo), signifying a hollowness. Appears to be a compound of ?, ? (utsu, "hollow", combining form, standalone form uchi, "inside") + ? (ha). The derivation of this ha element is unclear.

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji utsuwa, historical hiragana )

  1. container, vessel
  2. a tool, a utensil
  3. one's degree of ability: talent, calibre
  4. female genitalia: a vagina
Derived terms
Synonyms

References

  1. ^ 1988, () (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), T?ky?: Shogakukan
  2. ^ 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN

Korean

Hanja

? o (gi) (hangeul ?, McCune–Reischauer ki)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese

Han character

? (khí)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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