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%E5%94%90

Translingual

Han character

? (radical 30, ?+7, 10 strokes, cangjie input (ILR), four-corner 00267, composition ?????)

Derived characters

References

  • KangXi: page 192, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3709
  • Dae Jaweon: page 411, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 633, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+5510

Chinese

simp. and trad.
?

Glyph origin

Phono-semantic compound (, OC *?l'a:?): phonetic ? (OC *kra:?) + semantic ? ("mouth") - to exaggerate, to boast. ? and ? were near-homophones in Old Chinese.

Etymology

Either related to ? (OC *l'a:) (Wang Li, 1982) or from Austroasiatic, compare Proto-Mon-Khmer *gl, whence Mon , Kensiu g?l, Kuy khlù:a? (Schuessler, 2007)

Pronunciation

Definitions

?

  1. + to exaggerate; to boast
  2. +exaggerative; boastful
  3. +vast; wide; extensive
  4. +road inside temple
  5. +in vain; to no avail
  6. 50th tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "vastness, emptiness, pointlessness" (?)
  7. (~?) Tang Dynasty
  8. (figuratively) China
  9. A surname​.

See also

Dynasties () in Chinese history
Name Time period Divisions
Xia
? (~?, ~?)
2070 - 1600 BCE
Shang
? (~?, ~?)
? (~?, ~?)
1600 - 1046 BCE
Zhou
? (~?, ~?)
1046 - 256 BCE Western Zhou
Eastern Zhou
/
Spring and Autumn period
Warring States period
/
Qin
? (~?, ~?)
221 - 206 BCE
Han
?/? (~?, ~?)
206 BCE - 220 CE Western Han
/
Xin
? (~?)
Eastern Han
/
Three Kingdoms
/
220 - 280 CE Wei
?
Shu
?
Wu
?/?
Jin
?/? (~?, ~?)
265 - 420 CE Western Jin
/
Eastern Jin
/
Southern and Northern dynasties
420 - 589 CE Northern dynasties
Northern Wei
Western Wei
Eastern Wei
/
Northern Zhou
Northern Qi
/
Southern dynasties
Liu Song
/
Southern Qi
/
Liang
? (~?, ~?)
Chen
?/? (~?, ~?)
Sui
? (~?, ~?)
581 - 618 CE
Tang
? (~?, ~?)
618 - 907 CE
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
?/?
907 - 960 CE
Liao
?/? (~?, ~?)
907 - 1125 CE
Song
? (~?, ~?)
960 - 1279 CE Northern Song
Southern Song
Western Xia
1038 - 1227 CE
Jin
? (~?, ~?)
1115 - 1234 CE
Western Liao
/
1124 - 1218 CE
Yuan
? (~?, ~?)
1271 - 1368 CE
Ming
? (~?, ~?)
1368 - 1644 CE
Qing
? (~?, ~?)
1636 - 1912 CE

Compounds


Japanese

Kanji

?

(common "J?y?" kanji)

  1. Tang dynasty
  2. China, Chinese, Sino-
  3. foreign
  4. baseless, bogus
  5. abrupt, sudden

Readings

(Can we verify(+) this pronunciation?)

Compounds

Etymology 1

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Kanji in this term
?

Grade: S
on'yomi

/tau/ -> /t?:/ -> /to:/

From Middle Chinese ? (MC d).

Pronunciation

Noun

?() o (t?) (historical hiragana )

  1. foreign lands in general
Derived terms
Idioms

Proper noun

?() o (T?) (historical hiragana )

  1. (historical) name of various Chinese dynasties:
    1. the Tang dynasty (618-907 CE)
    2. the (K?t?, "Later Tang") (923-937 CE)
    3. the (Nant?, "Southern Tang") (937-976 CE)
  2. (dated) China in general
Derived terms

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: S
kun'yomi

From Japanese , a proper name from ancient Korean Peninsula.

Originally meant "China" during the Tang dynasty and "elements imported from China", then later expanded to mean "foreign lands in general" and "elements imported from foreign lands".

Pronunciation

Prefix

?() o (kara-)

  1. element in compounds, referring to things imported from China or from other foreign lands
    (?)??()?()??()?(?)??(?)
    karauta, karauta, karaage, karagoe
    Chinese-style poetry (as opposed to formal waka Japanese-style poetry), Chinese-style poetry, deep-fried chicken or fish (a style introduced by Europeans in the 1600s), "Chinese voice" -> the kan'on or Chinese-derived reading for a character
Derived terms

Noun

?() o (kara)

  1. foreign lands in general
  2. Short for (karaori): silk fabrics imported from China; an exquisitely-embroidered woman's kimono; a costume made in the karaori style used in Noh theater

Proper noun

?() o (Kara)

  1. (formal, dated) the name of China during the Tang dynasty (618-907 CE}
Derived terms
See also

Etymology 3

Kanji in this term
?
?
Grade: S
kun'yomi

?mo2ro2 ko1si? -> ?moro2ko1si? -> */mor?kosi/ -> /moroko?i/

From Old Japanese, first attested in the Man'y?sh? (c. 753 CE).

Originally a compound of ? (moro-, prefix meaning "many") + ? (koshi), the (ren'y?kei, "stem or continuative form") of (kosu, "to cross (over)"),[2] by reinterpretation of kun-reading ? (koshi) from on-reading of ? (Etsu, "(state of) Yue").[3]

Pronunciation

Alternative forms

Noun

?(?) o (morokoshi)

  1. (archaic) any objects imported from China
Derived terms

Proper noun

?(?) o (Morokoshi)

  1. (archaic) the name of China by the ancient Japanese people
    Synonym: (T?do)

References

  1. ^ 1998, NHK (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), T?ky?: NHK, ->ISBN
  2. ? 2.02.12.2 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN
  3. ^ 1995, (Daijisen) (in Japanese), T?ky?: Shogakukan, ->ISBN

Korean

Hanja

? o (dang) (hangeul ?, McCune–Reischauer tang)

  1. Tang dynasty
  2. Chinese

Okinawan

Kanji

?

(common "J?y?" kanji)

Readings

Etymology

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: S
on'yomi

Pronunciation

Proper noun

? (hiragana , r?maji T?)

  1. China

Derived terms

References

  • "" in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.

Vietnamese

Han character

? (ng, ng, ng, ?àng, gi?ng)

  1. Tang dynasty
  2. Chinese

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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