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Translingual

Stroke order
9 strokes

Han character

? (radical 24, ?+7, 9 strokes, cangjie input ? (JBTJ), four-corner 40227, composition ?????)

Derived characters

References

  • KangXi: page 157, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2750
  • Dae Jaweon: page 357, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 65, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+5357

Chinese

simp. and trad.
?
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • ? (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • ? (Cantonese)
  • ? (Gan)
  • nàm (Hakka)
  • ? (Wu)

Glyph origin

This character has been explained as a pictogram () of a hanging percussion instrument, originally identical to the left side of ?. Under this hypothesis its borrowing for the word "south" is difficult to explain.

Sagart (1988) instead proposes that it is a pictogram of the front of a house. Archaeological evidence confirms that in antiquity, at least in some regions, houses were built to face south.

Etymology 1

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g-nam ("sky, sun") (STEDT; Schuessler (2007); Benedict (1972)); the south is traditionally associated with the sun & light, compare ? (OC *la?, "light, sun-lit south-side of a hill").

If so, cognate with Tibetan (gnam, "sky"), (nam, "night"), Tshangla ngam ("sun, noon, day, sky"), Chepang (nyam, "sun, sunlight, storm-cloud, weather").

Alternatively, Sagart (2004) relates this word to Old Chinese *n?m (revised to *n?[?]m in 2014) "belly, front of the body", further "south" to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-nam ("rib(s)"), as one term for one body-part often shifts its meaning to another body-part nearby.

If so, ? is cognate with ? (OC *nj?ms, "to carry inside one's belly -> to be pregnant"), ? (OC *nj?m, *nj?ms, "to carry a burden, especially in front of the body"), also ? (OC *nu:m?, "belly (of an ox)"), Southern Pumi , Burmese (nam-rui:, "side of the body, rib"), and thus is a semantic counterpart to ? (OC *p?:?, "north"), which is related to ? (OC *p?:?s, *b?:?s, "back of the body").

Pronunciation

Definitions

?

  1. south; southern

Coordinate terms

  • (compass points)
?
? Compass rose simple plain.svg ?
?


Descendants

Sino-Xenic (?):
  • -> Japanese:?() (nan)
  • -> Okinawan:? () (nan)
  • -> Korean:? (?, nam)
  • -> Vietnamese: nam (?)

Others:

  • -> Japanese:?() (nan, "south wind (mahjong tile)")

Compounds

Etymology 2

Pronunciation

Definitions

?

  1. Only used in / (n?mó).

References


Japanese

Kanji

?

(grade 2 "Ky?iku" kanji)

Readings

Compounds

Etymology 1

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 2
kun'yomi
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

?mi1nami1? -> */m?inam/ -> /minami/

From Old Japanese.

Pronunciation

(Can we verify(+) this pronunciation?)

Noun

?() o (minami

  1. the south (cardinal point)
    • c. 762, Sh?s?in Man'y?gana Monjo[3]
      ()?()?()()?()()... [Man'y?gana]
      ?(?)??()?()?(?)??()??()?()??(?)... [Modern spelling]
      waga yashinai no kawari ni wa, ?mashimasu, minami no machi naru yatsuko o ukeyo to...
      (please add an English translation of this example)
    Antonym: ? (kita)
  2. a southerly, south wind
    Synonym: (minamikaze, hae)
    Antonym: ? (kita)
Coordinate terms
  • (compass points)
(?) (seihoku)/(?) (hokusei) ?() (kita) (?) (t?hoku)/(?) (hokut?)
?() (nishi) Compass rose simple plain.svg ?() (higashi)
(?) (seinan)/(?) (nansei) ?() (minami) (?) (t?nan)/(?) (nant?)


Derived terms

Proper noun

?() o (Minami

  1. (historical) the red-light district in modern-day Shinagawa Ward, Tokyo (as it was located south of Edo Castle)
  2. the name of a ward in various cities throughout Japan, especially a former ward in the city of Osaka which is now part of Ch Ward
  3. a female given name
  4. a surname

Verb

?() o (minami surusuru (stem ?()? (minami shi), past ?() (minami shita))

  1. (archaic) to go south
    • 1789, Seikash? (haikai by Takai Kit?)
      ()?()??()?()??()
      momiji fukashi, minami shi nishi su, mizu no sumi
      (please add an English translation of this example)
Conjugation

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
?
?
Grade: 2
Irregular

/minami/ -> /min:ami/

Appears in The Pillow Book, completed in 1002.

Alteration of minami.[1]

Pronunciation

Noun

?(?) o (minnami

  1. (archaic) the south

Proper noun

?(?) o (Minnami

  1. (historical, archaic) the red-light district in modern-day Shinagawa Ward, Tokyo

Etymology 3

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 2
goon

/nam?/ -> /na?/

From Middle Chinese ? (MC n?m).

Noun

?() o (nan

  1. the south
    Synonym: (nanp?)
  2. Short for (nanry?): beautiful silver; a type of silver coin in the Edo period
Derived terms

Affix

?() o (nan

  1. south, southern
  2. Used in Sanskrit transliterations
Derived terms

Proper noun

?() o (Nan

  1. a female given name
  2. a surname

Etymology 4

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 2
Irregular

From Mandarin ? (nán).

Noun

?() o (nan

  1. (mahjong) south wind (mahjong tile)
    Hypernym: (kazehai, fanpai)
  2. (mahjong) a ? (yaku, "winning hand") with a triplet or quad of south wind tiles; depending on wind round and player's seat wind, it is worth either 1 or 2 ? (han, "doubles")
    Hypernym: (yakuhai, yaku-pai)
Coordinate terms

References

  1. ? 1.01.1 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN
  2. ? 2.02.1 1998, NHK (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), T?ky?: NHK, ->ISBN
  3. ^ Takeuchi, Riz? (1962) Nara Ibun: Volume 3 (in Japanese), T?ky?: T?ky?d? Shuppan, ->ISBN.

Korean

Etymology 1

From Middle Chinese ? (MC n?m). Recorded as Middle Korean ? (Yale: nam) in Hunmong Jahoe (? / ?), 1527.

Hanja

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

? (eumhun ? (namnyeok nam))

  1. Hanja form? of ? ("south; southern").

Compounds

Etymology 2

Hanja

? (eumhun ? (namu na))

  1. Hanja form? of ? ("Only used in (, namu)").

References

  • ( ) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, ?/?. [2]

Okinawan

Kanji

?

(grade 2 "Ky?iku" kanji)

Readings

Compounds

Alternative forms

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 2
kun'yomi

Etymology

Cognate to Yonaguni ? (hai, "south, southerly") and western Japanese (hae, "southerly winds").

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji f?)

  1. the south (cardinal point)
  2. a southerly (wind blowing from the south)

Derived terms

References

  1. ^ "" in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary.
  • "" in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.

Old Japanese

Etymology

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Particularly: "Compound of ? (mi1, uncertain, possibly "sea" or "water") +‎ ? (na, apophonic form of attributive particle ? (no2)) +‎ ? (mi1, the (ren'y?kei, "stem form") of verb (mi1ru), "to look, see")?"

Noun

? (mi1nami1) (kana )

  1. the south (cardinal point)
  2. a southerly (wind blowing from the south)
    • c. 759, Man'y?sh? (book 18, poem 4106), text here
      ...?...
      ...mi1nami1 puki1 yuki1ke2 *masarite Imi1du-gapa nagaru mi1nawa no2 yo2ru pe1 nami1...
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)

Usage notes

Also used in the Man'y?sh? (759 C.E.) as (shakuon) kana for ?na? and (shakkun) kana for ?namu?.

Descendants

  • Japanese: ? (minami)

Vietnamese

Han character

?: Hán Nôm readings: nam

Adjective

? o (nam)

  1. south, southern

References


Yonaguni

Kanji

?

Readings

Etymology

Cognate to Okinawan ? (f?, "south, southerly") and western Japanese (hae, "southerly winds").

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , romaji hai)

  1. the south (cardinal point)
  2. a southerly (wind blowing from the south)

References

  • "" in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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