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Translingual

Stroke order
9 strokes

Han character

? (radical 24, ?+7, 9 strokes, cangjie input ? (JBTJ), four-corner 40227, composition ?????)

Derived characters

References

  • KangXi: page 157, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2750
  • Dae Jaweon: page 357, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 65, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+5357

Chinese

simp. and trad.
?
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph origin

This character has been explained as a pictogram () of a hanging percussion instrument, originally identical to the left side of ?. Under this hypothesis its borrowing for the word "south" is difficult to explain.

Sagart (1988) instead proposes that it is a pictogram of the front of a house. Archaeological evidence confirms that in antiquity, at least in some regions, houses were built to face south.

Etymology 1

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g-nam ("sky, sun") (STEDT; Schuessler (2007); Benedict (1972)); the south is traditionally associated with the sun & light, compare ? (OC *la?, "light, sun-lit south-side of a hill").

If so, cognate with Tibetan (gnam, "sky"), (nam, "night"), Tshangla ngam ("sun, noon, day, sky"), Chepang (nyam, "sun, sunlight, storm-cloud, weather").

Alternatively, Sagart (2004) relates this word to Old Chinese *n?m (revised to *n?[?]m in 2014) "belly, front of the body", further "south" to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-nam ("rib(s)"), as one term for one body-part often shifts its meaning to another body-part nearby.

If so, ? is cognate with ? (OC *nj?ms, "to carry inside one's belly -> to be pregnant"), ? (OC *nj?m, *nj?ms, "to carry a burden, especially in front of the body"), also ? (OC *nu:m?, "belly (of an ox)"), Southern Pumi , Burmese (nam-rui:, "side of the body, rib"), and thus is a semantic counterpart to ? (OC *p?:?, "north"), which is related to ? (OC *p?:?s, *b?:?s, "back of the body").

Pronunciation

Definitions

?

  1. south; southern
Coordinate terms
  • ?/? (d?ng): East; Eastern
  • ? (x?): West; Western
  • ? (b?i): North; Northern

Compounds

Etymology 2

Pronunciation

Definitions

?

  1. Only used in / (n?mó).

Compounds


Japanese

Kanji

?

(grade 2 "Ky?iku" kanji)

  1. south
  2. kanji used to transliterate Buddhist terms borrowed from Sanskrit

Readings

Compounds

Usage notes

Used in the Man'y?sh? (759 CE) as (shakuon) kana for ?na? and (shakkun) kana for ?namu?.

Etymology 1

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 2
kun'yomi

?mi1nami1? -> */m?inam/ -> /minami/

From Old Japanese.

Pronunciation

(Can we verify(+) this pronunciation?)

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji minami)

  1. south (cardinal point)
    • c. 762, Sh?s?in Man'y?gana Monjo[3]
      ? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)?? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)?? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? ()? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)... [Man'y?gana]
      ? (?)?? ()? ()? (?)?? ()?? ()? ()?? (?)... [Modern spelling]
      waga yashinai no kawari ni wa, ?mashimasu, minami no machi naru yatsuko o ukeyo to...
      (please add an English translation of this example)
    Antonym: ? (kita)
  2. south wind, southerly
    • c. 759, Man'y?sh? (book 18, poem 4106), text here
      ...? ()? () (?)? ()? (?)? (?) (?)? () ()? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)? (?)... [Man'y?gana]
      ...? ()? (?)?? ()? (?)?? (?)? ()? ()? ()? ()?? (?)? (?)?... [Modern spelling]
      ...minami fuki yukige wa furite Imizu-gawa nagaru minawa no yoru e nami...
      (please add an English translation of this example)
    Synonym: (minamikaze, hae)
    Antonym: ? (kita)
Derived terms

Proper noun

? (hiragana , katakana , r?maji Minami)

  1. (historical) the red-light district in modern-day Shinagawa Ward, Tokyo
    as it was located south of Edo Castle
  2. the name of a ward in various cities throughout Japan, especially a former ward in the city of Osaka which is now part of Ch Ward
  3. a female given name
  4. a surname

Verb

? (suru conjugation, hiragana , r?maji minami suru)

  1. (archaic) to go south
    • 1789, Seikash? (haikai by Takai Kit?)
       ()? ()?? ()? ()?? ()
      momiji fukashi, minami shi nishi su, mizu no sumi
      (please add an English translation of this example)
Conjugation

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
?
?
Grade: 2
Irregular

/minami/ -> /min:ami/

Appears in The Pillow Book, completed in 1002.

Alteration of minami.[1]

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana ?, r?maji minnami)

  1. (archaic) south (cardinal point)

Proper noun

? (hiragana ?, r?maji Minnami)

  1. (historical, archaic) the red-light district in modern-day Shinagawa Ward, Tokyo

Etymology 3

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 2
goon

/nam/ -> /nam?/ -> /na?/

From Middle Chinese ? (MC n?m).

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji nan)

  1. south (cardinal point)
    Synonym: (nanp?)
  2. Short for (nanry?): beautiful silver; a type of silver coin in the Edo period
Derived terms

Proper noun

? (hiragana , r?maji Nan)

  1. a female given name
  2. a surname

Etymology 4

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 2
Irregular

From Mandarin ? (nán).

Noun

? (katakana , r?maji nan)

  1. (mahjong) south wind (mahjong tile)
    Hypernym: (kazehai, fanpai)
  2. (mahjong) a ? (yaku, "winning hand") with a triplet or quad of south wind tiles; depending on wind round and player's seat wind, it is worth either 1 or 2 ? (han, "doubles")
    Hypernym: (yakuhai, yaku-pai)
Coordinate terms

References

  1. ? 1.01.1 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN
  2. ? 2.02.1 1998, NHK (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), T?ky?: NHK, ->ISBN
  3. ^ Takeuchi, Riz? (1962) Nara Ibun: Volume 3 (in Japanese), T?ky?: T?ky?d? Shuppan, ->ISBN.

Korean

Hanja

? o (nam)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): ?
    • Name (hangeul):
  1. south; southern

Okinawan

Kanji

?

(grade 2 "Ky?iku" kanji)

Readings

Compounds

Etymology

Cognate to Yonaguni ? (, hai, "south") and Japanese (, hae, "southerly winds").

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , r?maji f?)

  1. south; southern; in the south; southward

References

  • "" in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.
  • "" in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary.

Vietnamese

Han character

?: Hán Nôm readings: nam, na

Adjective

? o (nam)

  1. south, southern

References


Yonaguni

Kanji

?

Readings

Etymology

Cognate to Okinawan ? (, f?, "south") and Japanese (, hae, "southerly winds").

Pronunciation

Noun

? (hiragana , romaji hai)

  1. south; southern; in the south; southward

References

  • "" in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.

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