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See also: ?, ?, and ?

Translingual

Stroke order
6 strokes

Han character

? (radical 10, ?+4, 6 strokes, cangjie input ? (HGHU), four-corner 24211, composition ???)

Derived characters

References

  • KangXi: page 124, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1349
  • Dae Jaweon: page 260, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 267, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+5148

Chinese

simp. and trad.
?
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character ?
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
?-oracle.svg ?-bronze.svg ?-seal.svg ?-bigseal.svg





Etymology

Sino-Tibetan. Cognate with Tibetan ? (bsel, "to protect (on a dangerous path); to escort"), Chepang (syal?-, "to lead; to go or do first; to open way") (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation 1

Definitions

?

  1. to advance
  2. first; ahead of time; before; beforehand
    ????? / ?????  -  W? yào xi?n qù x?sh?uji?n.  -  I need to go to the bathroom first.
    ????? [Cantonese, trad.]
    ????? [Cantonese, simp.]
    ngo5 jiu3 heoi3 ci3 so2sin1. [Jyutping]
    I need to go to the bathroom first.
  3. previous, preceding
    ?? / ??  -  xi?nsh?ng  -  herald; sign
    ? / ? [Cantonese]  -  sin1 loeng5 jat6 [Jyutping]  -  day before yesterday; two days ago
  4. things of utmost importance
  5. ancient
  6. dead
  7. ancestor
  8. Short for (xi?nsheng).
  9. the past
  10. Short for (xi?nsh?u).
  11. (Cantonese) only then
    ???????? [Cantonese, trad.]
    ???????? [Cantonese, simp.]
    keoi5 fan3 dou3 ji4 gaa1sin1 fan3 seng2 gaau3. [Jyutping]
    He slept so long that he only woke up just now.
    ??? [Cantonese, trad.]
    ??? [Cantonese, simp.]
    nei1 di1sin1 hai6 coeng3 go1. [Jyutping]
    This is true singing.
  12. (Cantonese) first off
    ?????? / ?????? [Cantonese]  -  nei5 maai5 zo2 mei6sin1? [Jyutping]  -  First off, have you even bought it yet?
  13. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    ??????? [Cantonese, trad.]
    ??????? [Cantonese, simp.]
    ngo5sin1 m4 tung4 keoi5 gong2. [Jyutping]
    There's no way I'm going to tell them. / No, I am not going to tell them.
  14. A surname​.
Usage notes
  • (first; beforehand): In Standard Mandarin, ? comes before the verb; in Cantonese, Teochew and Southeast Asian Mandarin, ? comes after the verb (and elements such as verb aspect and verb object).
Synonyms
  • (first): (sh?uxi?n), (zuìxi?n), (dì-y?)
  • (only then): ? (cái)

Compounds

References

Pronunciation 2

Definitions

?

  1. to guide
  2. earlier
  3. to surpass
  4. originally
  5. to introduce
  6. term to address older brother's wife

Pronunciation 3

Definitions

?

  1. Only used in /.

Japanese

Kanji

?

(grade 1 "Ky?iku" kanji)

Readings

  • Go-on: (sen, J?y?)
  • Kan-on: (sen, J?y?)
  • Kun: (saki, ?, J?y?); (sakinjiru, ?); (mazu, )

Compounds

Etymology 1

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
kun'yomi
Alternative spelling
?

From Old Japanese. Cognate with ? (saki, "a (geographical) point, where the land sticks out into the water").[1]

Pronunciation

Noun

?() o (saki

  1. before, previous
  2. end, tip
  3. earlier, the past
  4. afterwards, the future
  5. the destination of a motion or action
  6. sequel
  7. ahead, in front
Derived terms
Idioms

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese ? (MC sen, senH).

Pronunciation

Noun

?() o (sen

  1. before, previous
Derived terms

References

  1. ^ 1988, () (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), T?ky?: Shogakukan
  2. ^ 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN
  3. ^ 1998, NHK (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), T?ky?: NHK, ->ISBN

Korean

Etymology 1

From Middle Chinese ? (MC sen, senH). Recorded as Middle Korean ? (Yale: syen) in Sinjeung Yuhap (? / ?), 1576.

Pronunciation

Hanja

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

? (eumhun ? (meonjeo seon))

  1. Hanja form? of ? ("first; foremost").
  2. Hanja form? of ? ("former; previous").

Compounds

Etymology 2

From Middle Chinese ? / ? (MC seiX).

Hanja

? (eumhun () ? (jeon-gu se))

  1. (archaic) Hanja form? of ? ("to lead; to guide").

Compounds

References

  • ( ) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, ?/?. [1]

Vietnamese

Han character

?: Hán Vi?t readings: tiên (?()?(ti?n)?(thi?t))[1][2][3][4][5], ti?n[5]
?: Nôm readings: tiên[1][2][3][4][6], tên[1], ten[3], teng[3]

  1. Hán t? form of tiên ("first; prior; before").

Compounds

References


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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