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middle; center; within; among; in; while (doing sth); during; China; Chinese; hit (the mark)
country; state; nation
trad. () ? ?
simp. () ? ?
anagram /
Literally: "middle country; central country".
Wikipedia has articles on:


Etymology 1

This word referred to various states and regions throughout history:

Proper noun

  1. China; the Middle Kingdom; Central State
    ??? [MSC, trad.]
    ??? [MSC, simp.]
    Zh?ngguó de sh?ud? shì B?ij?ng. [Pinyin]
    The capital of China is Beijing.
    ??? [MSC, trad.]
    ??? [MSC, simp.]
    T? xiànzài zài Zh?ngguó l?xíng. [Pinyin]
    He's travelling around China right now.
    ??? [Taiwanese Mandarin, trad.]
    ??? [Taiwanese Mandarin, simp.]
    N? x?hu?n Zh?ngguó wénxué ma? [Pinyin]
    Do you like Chinese literature?
    ? / ?  -  Zh?ngguó hépíng juéq?  -  China's peaceful rise
    /   -  Zh?ngguó shèhuìk?xuéyuàn  -  the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
    /   -  Zh?ngguó di?njí y?ngyì  -  English translations of Chinese classics
  • (China):
Derived terms


  1. (archaic) royal court; imperial court; imperial household; imperial government
  2. (archaic) central part of a country (historically, commonly known as the capital city or the main region, where an emperor or other ruler resides)
    ?????? [Classical Chinese, trad.]
    ?????? [Classical Chinese, simp.]
    From: Mencius, circa 4th century BCE, translated based on James Legge's version
    W? yù zh?ngguó ér shòu Mèngz? shì. [Pinyin]
    I wish to give Mencius a house, somewhere in the middle of the kingdom.
  3. (archaic) within a country
  4. (archaic) region under direct rule of the emperor
  5. (archaic) the Central Plain (area on the lower reaches of the Yellow River which formed the cradle of Chinese civilization)
    ??? [Classical Chinese, trad.]
    ??? [Classical Chinese, simp.]
    From: Mencius, circa 4th century BCE
    zh?ngguó ér f? sìyí [Pinyin]
    to rule over the Central Plain and pacify the neighbouring foreign peoples
  • (royal court):
  • / (shàngguó) (as termed by vassal states)
  • (g?ngji?)
  • (g?ngtíng)
  • / (guóji?) (Classical Chinese)
  • (cháotíng)
  • (wángshì)
  • (wángcháo)
  • (central part of a country): (archaic) / (guózh?ng)
  • (the Central Plain): (Zh?ngt?), (Zh?ngyuán), (Zh?ngzh?u)


Sino-Xenic ():
  • -> Japanese:?()?() (Ch?goku)
  • -> Korean: (, Jungguk)
  • -> Vietnamese: Trung Qu?c ()


Etymology 2

Orthographic borrowing from Japanese ?()?() (Ch?goku), from Middle Chinese (MC u? kw?k?, "the central part of a country").

Proper noun

  1. (~, ~) the Ch?goku region of Japan
    • 2004, , ?(1964-2004):[1]
      ?????,???????5?? [MSC, trad.]
      ?????,???????5?? [MSC, simp.]
      Zhèl? de Zh?ngguó shì zh? Rìb?n de Zh?ngguó Dìf?ng, jí zh? B?nzh?u x?bù de G?ngsh?n, Gu?ngd?o, Sh?nk?u, D?og?n, Ni?oq? 5 xiàn. [Pinyin]
      Here, refers to the Ch?goku region of Japan, or the five prefectures of Okayama, Hiroshima, Yamaguchi, Shimane, and Tottori that lay in the western region of Honsh?.

Etymology 3

Orthographic borrowing from Japanese ?()?() (Nakakuni).

Proper noun

  1. Nakakuni (a Japanese surname)


Kanji in this term
? ?

Grade: 1

Proper noun

() o (Ch?goku) (ky?jitai kanji, shinjitai kanji )

  1. Ky?jitai form of : China


Hanja in this term

Proper noun

o (Jungguk) (hangeul )

  1. Hanja form? of ("China").


Hán t? in this term

Proper noun

  1. Hán t? form of Trung Qu?c ("China").


Proper noun

  1. Sawndip form of Cunghgoz

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