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For pronunciation and definitions of ?? - see ("China; the Middle Kingdom; Central State; etc.").
(This term, , is the simplified form of .)


Etymology 1

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Kanji in this term
? ?

Grade: 1
Grade: 2

From Middle Chinese (MC u? kw?k?, literally "central country"). Compare modern Cantonese (zung1 gwok3).

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: "Where the "China" sense first attested in a Japanese document?")

Proper noun

() o (Ch?goku) (shinjitai kanji, ky?jitai kanji )

  1. China, especially short for ? (Ch?ka Jinmin Ky?wakoku), the People's Republic of China
    • 1998 November 30 [Nov 25 1990], Fujiko F. Fujio, ?? [Nobita and the Animal Planet] (; 10), volume 10 (fiction), 22nd edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, ->ISBN, page 27:
      N? n?, ima no chizu mita!?
      Hey look, isn't that a map!?
      Mita! Ittai koko wa nan to iu kuni dar?.
      It is! And what country is this anyway?
      Kuni? Kuni tte n?ni.
      Country? What's a country?
      Amerika toka Ch?goku toka iroiro aru ja nai.
      There are countries like America and China, aren't there?
      Bokura wa Nippon kara kitan dakedo....
      We're from Japan, by the way....
      Nippon? Kiita koto nai.
      Japan? I've never heard of that before.
Derived terms
Related terms

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
? ?

Grade: 1
Grade: 2

From Middle Chinese (MC u? kw?k?). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Analyzable as a compound of ? (ch?, "center, middle") +‎ ? (koku, "country"). The koku changes to goku as an instance of rendaku ().



() o (ch?goku) (shinjitai kanji, ky?jitai kanji )

  1. the central part of a country, historically, commonly known as the capital city or the main region, where an emperor or other ruler resides
  2. something within a country
  3. (historical) under the (Ritsury?) system, a province of the third rank according to a four-rank system based on population and area
  4. (historical) under the (Ritsury?) system, a province of the second rank according to the distance from the capital city
  5. collective term for the (San'y?d?) and (San'ind?) regions of Japan
Derived terms

Proper noun

() o (Ch?goku) (shinjitai kanji, ky?jitai kanji )

  1. Short for ? (Ch?goku chih?): the Ch?goku region of Japan

Etymology 3

From ? (naka, "center, middle") +‎ ? (kuni, "country").

Proper noun

(?) o (Nakakuni) (shinjitai kanji, ky?jitai kanji )

  1. a surname

See also


  1. ^ 1997, ? (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN
  2. ^ 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN


Proper noun

  1. Sawndip form of Cunghgoz

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