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See also: ? and ?

Translingual

Stroke order
?-order.gif
Stroke order
3 strokes

Han character

? (radical 1, ?+2, 3 strokes, cangjie input (MY), four-corner 10230, composition ???)

References

  • KangXi: page 76, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14
  • Dae Jaweon: page 147, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 7, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+4E0B

Chinese

simp. and trad.
?
alternative forms ?
?

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character ?
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
?-oracle.svg ?-bronze.svg ACC-b00156.svg ACC-b00158.svg ?-silk.svg ?-slip.svg ?-ancient.svg ?-seal.svg ?-bigseal.svg





? in its shell and bone form is an ideogram () that shows the concept of down by showing one line below another (contrast ?). The shell and bone form evolved into ?, the character used today.

Etymology

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *(k/g)la-k/y/t ("to fall") (STEDT);

insides Sinitic, cognate to ? (OC *?·ra:?) "to fall, to drop", ? (OC *?·ra:?s) "dew", ? (OC *l'a:l?, *l'al?) "to collapse" and ? (OC *l'al?, *hljal?) "hillside, slope";
outsides Sinitic, cognate to Mizo tla ~ tlâk ("to fall"), thla ~ thlâk ("to drop"), Burmese (kya., "to fall") and (hkya., "to drop").

Schuessler (2007) instead proposed an Austroasiatic origin by comparing ? (OC gra:?) "to descend, down, below" to Khmer [script needed] (gra'ka, "be low, debased"); additionally, he suggested that Sino-Tibetan influence had possibly caused the weakening of foreign final *-k to OC final *-?.

? (OC *gra:s) "to be put down" is an exopassive derivation (ibid.);
? (OC *gra:s) "to descend, to fall" is a later, general / (qùsh?ng) derivative (ibid.).

Pronunciation

Definitions

?

  1. (lower; inferior; located below)
    Antonym: ? (shàng)
    1. low position
      ?? / ??  -  xiàcéng  -  lower level
    2. lower part of; under
      ?? / ??  -  shùxià  -  under the tree
      ?? / ??  -  lóuxià  -  downstairs
      1. under the influence of; with
        ?? / ??  -  zài zhèxi? tiáojiàn xià  -  under these conditions
        ??? / ???  -  zài péngy?u de b?ngzhù xià  -  with help from friends
        ?? / ??  -  zài yàosh? zh?d?o xià  -  under the instruction of a pharmacist
    3. later; next
      ?? / ??  -  xià ge shìjì  -  the next century
      ??  -  xiàju?n  -  Volume II
    4. +inferior, poor
      ??  -  xiàrén  -  servant
      ??  -  xiàp?n  -  inferior products
  2. (to go to a lower place)
    Antonym: ? (shàng)
    1. to go down; to descend (as complement) downwards; down
      ????? / ?????  -  N? kuài xià lái.  -  Come down here.
      ??  -  xiàh?i  -  to go to sea
      ?? / ??  -  xiàlóu  -  to go downstairs
      ??  -  xiàsh?n  -  to go down the mountain
      ??  -  z?uxià  -  to walk down
      ??  -  luòxià  -  to fall down
      ?? / ??  -  tiàoxià sh?nyu?n  -  to jump down to an abyss
      1. (as complement) completely, thoroughly
        ??  -  xià  -  to capture; to arrest
        ?? / ??  -  d?xià j?ch?  -  to lay the foundation
    2. to get out of; to leave
      ??  -  xiàchuán  -  to disembark from a boat
      ??  -  xiàchuáng  -  to get out of bed
      1. to finish, to complete
        ??  -  xiàb?n  -  to get off work
        ?? / ??  -  xià  -  to finish class
    3. + to go to somewhere considered poor or inferior
      ?? / ??  -  xiàxi?ng  -  to go to the countryside
      ? / ?  -  xiàgu?nz?  -  to go to the restaurant
      ??  -  xiày?  -  to be forced to step down
    4. (colloquial) Short for ("to log out").
  3. (to move something to a lower place)
    1. (with limited objects, often figuratively) to put something down
      ?? / ??  -  xiàb?  -  to start writing (lit., "to put the inkbrush down")
      ?? / ??  -  xiàji?o  -  to have a small place to stand in (lit., "to put the feet down")
      ?? / ??  -  xiàyào  -  to drug someone (lit., "to put the drug down")
      ??  -  xià  -  to stay the night (lit., "to put the bed down")
      1. to put food into boiling water
        ? / ?  -  xià miàntiáo  -  to put noodles into boiling water
        ? / ?  -  xià ji?oz?  -  to put dumplings into boiling water
      2. to rain or snow
        ??  -  xiàxu?  -  to snow
        ??  -  xiày?  -  to rain
      3. to give birth (as an animal)
        ? / ?  -  xià zh?za?  -  to have piglets
        ??  -  xiàdàn  -  to lay eggs
      4. (colloquial) Short for ("to download").
        ????? / ?????  -  Xi?n qù xià ge ru?njiàn.  -  Download the software first.
    2. to give or issue something to an inferior person
      ??  -  xiàlìng  -  to issue an order
      1. to send an invitation
        ? / ?  -  xià zhànsh?  -  to send a letter of challenge
    3. + to conquer
      ???? / ????  -  lián xià s?n chéng  -  to achieve three goals successively (lit. "to conquer three forts successively")
  4. (a short time)
    1. (historical, obsolete) Synonym of ?: an ancient unit of time, equal to 24 minutes
    2. (colloquial) (as complement) Short for .
      1. for a short time; for one moment
        ??  -  d?ng xià  -  wait a moment
      2. give something a go
        ??  -  kàn xià  -  take a look
        ?? [Cantonese]  -  tai2haa5 [Jyutping]  -  take a look
        ?? / ?? [Cantonese]  -  man4haa5 [Jyutping]  -  try smelling it
    3. Classifier for the number of occurances: time
      ????? / ?????  -  Qi?o s?n xià mén.  -  Knock at the door three times.
  5. to alight, to get off (a vehicle)

Synonyms

See also

  • ? (luò)
  • (down): ? (d?)

Compounds

Descendants

Sino-Xenic (?):
  • -> Japanese:?(?) (ka); ?(?) (ge)
  • -> Korean:? (?, ha)
  • -> Vietnamese: h? (?)

References


Japanese

Kanji

?

(grade 1 "Ky?iku" kanji)

Readings

  • Go-on: ? (ge, J?y?)
  • Kan-on: ? (ka, J?y?)
  • Kun: (shita, ?, J?y?); (shimo, ?, J?y?); (moto, ?, J?y?); (sagaru, , J?y?); (sageru, , J?y?); (kudaru, , J?y?); (kudasu, , J?y?); ? (kudasaru, , J?y?); (oriru, , J?y?); (orosu, , J?y?)

Compounds

Etymology 1

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
kun'yomi

/sita/ -> /?ita/

From Old Japanese.

Pronunciation

Noun

?() o (shita

  1. the below
    Antonym: ? (ue)
Derived terms

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
kun'yomi

?simo1? -> /sim?o/ -> /?imo/

From Old Japanese.

Pronunciation

Noun

?() o (shimo

  1. the lower portion, end
    Antonym: ? (kami)
  2. low in degree or rank
Derived terms

Etymology 3

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Cognate with ? (moto, "origin").[3][4]

Alternative forms

Pronunciation

Noun

?() o (moto

  1. the lower portion, base
  2. under the influence of

Etymology 4

Kanji in this term
?
?
Grade: 1
goon

From Middle Chinese ? (MC aX, aH).

The (goon, literally "Wu sound") reading, so likely the initial borrowing from Middle Chinese.

Pronunciation

Noun

?(?) o (ge

  1. the last volume in a two- or three-volume set

Etymology 5

Kanji in this term
?
?
Grade: 1
kan'on

From Middle Chinese ? (MC aX, aH).

The (kan'on, literally "Han sound") reading, so likely a later borrowing from Middle Chinese.

Affix

?(?) o (ka

  1. down; below; beneath

Suffix

?(?) o (-ka

  1. under a situation

References

  1. ? 1.01.11.21.31.4 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN
  2. ? 2.02.12.22.32.4 1998, NHK (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), T?ky?: NHK, ->ISBN
  3. ^ 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN
  4. ^ 1995, (Daijisen) (in Japanese), T?ky?: Shogakukan, ->ISBN

Korean

Hanja

? (eumhun ? (arae ha))

  1. (only used in compounds) Hanja form? of ? ("below; bottom; lower; underneath").

Compounds

  • (, gakha)
  • (, nakha)
  • / (, nangha/rangha)
  • (, jeoha)
  • (, jeonha)
  • (, jiha)
  • (, cheonha)
  • (, pyeha)
  • (, habu)
  • (, hasu)

Okinawan

Etymology

Attested in the ? (Okinawa Goten, "Okinawan Dictionary") as .[1]

Cognate with mainland Japanese ? (shita).

Noun

? (hiragana , romaji shicha)

  1. the below

Derived terms

References

  1. ^ 1896: ? (Okinawa Goten, "Okinawan Dictionary"). In Japanese. http://kindai.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/992016/46



Old Japanese

Etymology 1

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun

? (sita) (kana )

  1. the below
    1. looking down
      • 711-712, Kojiki (poem 57)
        ......
        ...sasibu wo sasibu no2 ki2 si ga sita ni opi2dateru pabi1ro2 yu tu ma-tubaki1...
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    2. a place
      • 711-712, Kojiki (poem 5)
        ..?...
        ...takubusuma sayagu ga sita ni wakayaru mune wo takuduno1 no2 siro1ki1 tadamuki...
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    Antonym: ? (upe2)
Derived terms
  • , (sitado1pi1)
  • (sitanaki1)
  • (ame2no2sita)
Descendants
  • Japanese: ? (shita)

Etymology 2

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun

? (simo1 -> simo) (kana )

  1. the lower part
    Antonym: ? (kami1)
Descendants
  • Japanese: ? (shimo)

Vietnamese

Han character

?: Hán Vi?t readings: h?[1][2][3]
?: Nôm readings: h?[1][2][3]

  1. Hán t? form of h? ("to lower; to bring down; to take down").

Compounds

References


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