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See also: ?

Translingual

Stroke order
3 strokes
Stroke order
?-order.gif

Han character

? (radical 1, ?+2, 3 strokes, cangjie input (YM), four-corner 21100, composition ???)

Derived characters

References

  • KangXi: page 76, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13
  • Dae Jaweon: page 145, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 5, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+4E0A

Chinese

simp. and trad.
?
alternative forms ?
?
? Min Nan "most"

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character ?
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
?-oracle.svg ?-bronze.svg ?-silk.svg ?-slip.svg ?-ancient.svg ?-seal.svg ?-bigseal.svg





Ideogram (): a line above another (contrast ?) -- up. Originally written as ?, but changed to this form to prevent confusion with ? (èr).

Etymology 1

From Sino-Tibetan. Cognate with Tibetan (yang rtse, "summit; pinnacle") (Bodman, 1980), Mizo zo ("to be high"), zah ("to respect; to revere"). STEDT, on the other hand, considers ? to be from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-tja? ("upper part; rise; raise; top; summit").

Shijing rimes indicate occasional level tone for pronunciation 2 (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation 1 is the exopassive of pronunciation 2 with suffix *-s, literally meaning "what has been raised" (Schuessler, 2007). The rising tone in Middle Chinese words with voiced stop initials regularly evolves into departing tone in Mandarin; pronunciation 3 results from / (xiéyùn), which artificially preserves classical poetry rhyming words' pronunciations.

Pronunciation 1

Definitions

?

  1. upper part; high position; up
    Antonyms: ? (xià)
  2. +emperor
  3. on; above
    ?? / ??  -  shùshàng  -  on the tree
    ????? / ?????  -  B? zài zhu?shàng.  -  The pen is on the desk.
  4. superior; senior; top
  5. preceding; previous; last; former
    ???  -  shàng y? nián  -  last year
    ??  -  shàng  -  last episode
    ? / ?  -  shàng shìjì  -  last century
  6. first of several (usually two or three) partitions
    Antonyms: ? (zh?ng), ? (xià)
    ? / ?  -  X?yóujì shàng  -  Journey to the West I
    ??? [MSC, trad.]
    ??? [MSC, simp.]
    shàngg? hàny? hé zh?ngg? hàny? [Pinyin]
    Old Chinese and Middle Chinese
  7. within; in; from the standpoint of; according to
    ?? / ??  -  zài l?lùn shàng  -  according to theory
    ?? / ??  -  zài zhège shìjiè shàng  -  in this world
    ???? [MSC, trad.]
    ???? [MSC, simp.]
    Zài y?ngwén shàng méiy?u xiàngsì de shu?f?. [Pinyin]
    There is no similar way of wording in English.
  8. (Min Nan) most; extremely

Pronunciation 2

Definitions

?

  1. to go up; to ascend
  2. to charge; to advance
    • ??!  -  Shàng a!  -  Charge!
  3. to go to; to leave for (a place) (usually to a more developed place)
    • ?  -  shàng x?ngchéng  -  to go to province capital
  4. to board; to get on
    • ???? / ????  -  Q?ng shàng ch?.  -  Please get into the car.
  5. to serve; to present; to offer
    • ?????? / ??????  -  Háiy?u li?ng ge cài méi shàng.  -  There're two dishes that haven't been served.
    • ?????? / ??????  -  Shàng b? hé zh? lái.  -  Give me the pen and the paper.
  6. to attend (class, work)
    • ??  -  shàngb?n  -  to go to work
    • ???  -  T? shàng yèxiào.  -  She goes to night school.
  7. to enter (a field); to appear (on stage, TV)
  8. to fit; to install; to apply
    • ?  -  shàng yóuq?  -  to apply paint
  9. to screw; to tighten, to twist
  10. (colloquial) Short for ("to go online").
  11. to connect to; browse (a website)
    • ?  -  shàng G?g?  -  to go on Google; to google
  12. (Min) to pull upwards or hang with a rope
  13. (Min Nan) to grow and attach
  14. (Xiamen Min Nan) to pile up
  15. (vulgar, of a male) to fuck; to have intercourse with a female
  16. Particle following verbs, indicating direction or achievement.
    • ???  -  ?npái shàng le.  -  (please add an English translation of this example)
  17. 7th tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "ascension" (?)

Pronunciation 3

Definitions

?

  1. (~?) (Chinese phonetics) rising tone in Chinese phonetics

Compounds

Descendants

Sino-Xenic (?):
  • -> Japanese:? () (j?)
  • -> Korean:? (?, sang)
  • -> Vietnamese: thng (?)

Etymology 2

For pronunciation and definitions of ? - see ? ("to sole a shoe").
(This character, ?, is the second-round simplified form of ?.)
Notes:

Etymology 3

For pronunciation and definitions of ? - see ? ("the piece of leather used for soles on Chinese shoes; a patch of leather").
(This character, ?, is the second-round simplified form of ?.)
Notes:

Further reading


Japanese

Kanji

?

(grade 1 "Ky?iku" kanji)

  1. above, high, up
  2. earlier
  3. excellent, top
  4. certain time or place in the past
  5. limit
  6. climb, rise
  7. offer
  8. go to the center
  9. raise, bring up
  10. one of the four tones of Middle Chinese
  11. short for (K?zuke no kuni): K?zuke Province

Readings

Compounds

Etymology 1

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
kun'yomi

?upe2? -> /*upai?/ -> /upe/ -> /ufe/ -> /uwe/ -> /ue/

From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *upay.

Bound apophonic form of uwa, ancient upa (see below), possibly by fusion with an emphatic nominal particle ? (i).

Pronunciation

Noun

?() o (ue) (historical hiragana )

  1. the above
  2. the top (position or direction)
  3. the surface of
Antonyms
Derived terms
Idioms

Suffix

?() o (-ue) (historical hiragana )

  1. suffix addressing to a superior
Derived terms

Proper noun

?() o (Ue) (historical hiragana )

  1. a surname

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
kun'yomi

/upa/ -> /ufa/ -> /uwa/

From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *upa. The combining form of ue, ancient upe (see above).[1]

Pronunciation

Noun

?() o (uwa) (historical hiragana )

  1. upper, over
Derived terms

Proper noun

?() o (Uwa) (historical hiragana )

  1. a place name

Etymology 3

Kanji in this term
?
?
Grade: 1
kun'yomi
Kanji in this term
?
?
Grade: 1
Irregular

?upe2? -> ?pe2? -> */pe/ -> /fe/ -> /he/

Short-form of or shift from ue, ancient upe (see above). Realized as -e in some compounds.

Pronunciation

  • (Irregular reading)
Usage notes

The senses are the same with ue.

Derived terms

Etymology 4

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
kun'yomi

?kami1? -> */kam?i/ -> /kami/

From Old Japanese. Already apparent in ancient texts such as the Kojiki (c. 712 CE) and the Man'y?sh? (c. 759 CE).[1][4]

Distinct from ? (?kami2? -> kami, "Shinto deity").

Pronunciation

Noun

?() o (kami)

  1. the start
  2. a high place; the top
  3. one with higher rank
Antonyms
Derived terms
Idioms

Proper noun

?() o (Kami)

  1. a place name
  2. a surname

Etymology 5

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
kun'yomi

/kami/ -> /kam?/ -> /ka?/

Contraction of Old Japanese ?kami1?. Spelled in ancient works as (kamu) prior to the development of the ? (n) kana.[1][4][5]

Pronunciation

Noun

?() o (kan)

  1. (obsolete) Same as (kami) above
Usage notes

Generally only found when followed by the genitive / possessive particles ? (no) or ? (tsu).

Derived terms

Proper noun

?() o (Kan)

  1. a place name

Etymology 6

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
goon

/dau/ -> /d:/ -> /do:/

From Middle Chinese ? (MC dX, dH).

Pronunciation

Noun

?() o (j?) (historical hiragana )

  1. the first volume in a two- or three-volume set
    Antonym: ? (ge)

Suffix

?() o (-j?) (historical hiragana )

  1. from the standpoint of...
    ? (?)? ()? ()
    riron-j? wa arienai koto
    something that is impossible according to theory
    ? ()? ()? ()?? ()? ()
    h?ritsu-j? no s?ch?
    legal dispute
  2. aboard (a plane, ship, etc.)
  3. above, in, on
Derived terms

Proper noun

?() o (J?) (historical hiragana )

  1. a surname

References

  1. ? 1.01.11.21.31.4 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN
  2. ? 2.02.1 1974, ? (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?
  3. ? 3.03.1 1998, NHK (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), T?ky?: NHK, ->ISBN
  4. ? 4.04.1 1988, () (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), T?ky?: Shogakukan
  5. ^ 1995, (Daijisen) (in Japanese), T?ky?: Shogakukan, ->ISBN

Korean

Hanja

? (eumhun ? ? (wit sang))

  1. Hanja form? of ? ("top; first; best").

Compounds

  • (, sesang)
  • (, isang)
  • (, jeongsang)
  • (, hyangsang)

Vietnamese

Han character

?: Hán Vi?t readings: thng (?(thì)?(lng)?(thi?t))[1][2][3][4]
?: Nôm readings: thng[1][3][4][5]

  1. Hán t? form of thng ("upper; higher; top").

Compounds

References


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