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See also: ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, and ?
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Translingual

Stroke order
?-order.gif

Han character

? (radical 1, ?+2, 3 strokes, cangjie input (MMM), four-corner 10101, composition ??? or ???)

  1. Shu?wén Ji?zì radical No4

Derived characters

Descendants

References

  • KangXi: page 76, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 12
  • Dae Jaweon: page 138, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 4, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+4E09

Chinese

simp. and trad.
?
alternative forms ?/?/?/? financial
?
?
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character ?
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
?-oracle.svg ?-bronze.svg ACC-b00375.svg ?-silk.svg ?-slip.svg ?-ancient.svg ?-seal.svg ?-bigseal.svg





Ideogram () - three parallel lines. Compare with ?, one line meaning "one", ?, two lines meaning "two", and ?, four lines meaning "four". Triplication of ? ("one").

Etymology

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g-sum.

Pronunciation 1

Definitions

?

  1. three
  2. (Mainland China, slang, neologism) the other woman; the other man
  3. (Mainland China, slang, neologism) This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
  4. A surname​.

Descendants

Sino-Xenic (?):
  • -> Japanese:? () (san)
  • -> Korean:? (?, sam)
  • -> Vietnamese: tam (?)

Others:

  • -> Tai: *sa:m? ("three")
    • Lao: (s?m)
    • Thai: (s?am)
    • Zhuang: sam

Compounds

Pronunciation 2

Definitions

?

  1. +repeatedly; thrice
    ??  -  s?ns?  -  to think carefully

Compounds

See also

Chinese numbers
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 102 103 104 108 1012
Normal
(/)
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?/? ?/? ? (Taiwan)
/ (Mainland China)
Financial
(/)
? ? ?/? ?/? ? ? ?/? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Playing cards in Chinese · / (p?kèpái) (layout · text)
40 Asso di picche.jpg 41 Due di picche.jpg 42 Tre di picche.jpg 43 Quattro di picche.jpg 44 Cinque di picche.jpg 45 Sei di picche.jpg 46 Sette di picche.jpg
/ ? ? ? ? ? ?
47 Otto di picche.jpg 48 Nove di picche.jpg 49 Dieci di picche.jpg 50 J di picche.jpg 51 Q di picche.jpg 52 K di picche.jpg Jolly Nero.jpg
? ? ? / /, (regional) K (black), (red), (black), (red)

References


Japanese

Kanji

?

(grade 1 "Ky?iku" kanji)

  1. three

Readings

  • Go-on: (san, J?y?) (san, historical) (samu, ancient)
  • Kan-on: (san, J?y?) (san, historical) (samu, ancient)
  • Kun: ? (mi, ?, J?y?); (mitsu, , J?y?); (mittsu, , J?y?)
  • Nanori: ? (ka); (kazu); ? (sa); (sai); (sae); (sabu); (samu); ? (so); (s?); ? (zo); (z?); (tada); (min); ? (mo); ? (ya)

Compounds

Alternative forms

  • (Financial/formal form): ?

Etymology 1

Japanese cardinal numbers
 <  2 3 4  > 
    Cardinal : ?
Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
on'yomi

*/sam/ -> /samu/ -> /sa?/

From Middle Chinese ? (MC s?m, s?mH). Compare modern Mandarin ? (s?n).

In Old Japanese, this kanji was used phonetically to transcribe (samu).

Pronunciation

Numeral

? (hiragana , r?maji san)

  1. three, 3
    Synonym: (sur?)
  2. third
Derived terms

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
on'yomi

Borrowing from Chinese ? (s?n), with the pitch accent different from etymology 1. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Pronunciation

Numeral

? (katakana , r?maji san)

  1. three
Derived terms

Etymology 3

Kanji in this term
?
?
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

?mi1? -> /mi/

From Old Japanese.

Likely an apophonic form of ? (mu, "six"), compare ? (yo, "four") with ? (ya, "eight"). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Pronunciation

Numeral

? (hiragana ?, r?maji mi)

  1. three
    ? (?)?? (?)?? (?)?? (?)?[...]
    hi, fu, mi, yo, [...]
    one, two, three, four, [...]
Derived terms

Etymology 4

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
Irregular

/mi/ -> /mi:/

Shift from mi above.[1]

Pronunciation

Numeral

? (hiragana , r?maji m?)

  1. (colloquial) three
    ? ()?? ()?? ()?? ()?? ()?? ()?? ()?? ()?? ()?? ()
    h?, f?, m?, y?, itsu, m?, n?, y?, k?, t?
    one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten

Coordinate terms

Japanese numbers
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Regular ? () (rei)
? () (zero)
? () (ichi) ? (?) (ni) ? () (san) ? () (yon)
? (?) (shi)
? (?) (go) ? () (roku) ? () (nana)
? () (shichi)
? () (hachi) ? () (ky?)
? (?) (ku)
? () (j?)
Formal ? () (ichi) ? (?) (ni) ? () (san) ? () (j?)
90 100 300 600 800 1,000 3,000 8,000 10,000 100,000,000
Regular ? ()? () (ky?j?) ? () (hyaku)
? ()? () (ippyaku)
? ()? () (sanbyaku) ? ()? () (roppyaku) ? ()? () (happyaku) ? () (sen)
? ()? () (issen)
? ()? () (sanzen) ? ()? () (hassen) ? ()? () (ichiman) ? ()? () (ichioku)
Formal ? ()? () (ichiman)
1012 8×1012 1013 1016 6×1016 8×1016 1017 1018
? ()? () (itch?) ? ()? () (hatch?) ? ()? () (jutch?) ? ()? () (ikkei) ? ()? () (rokkei) ? ()? () (hakkei) ? ()? () (jukkei) ? ()? () (hyakkei)

References

  1. ? 1.01.11.21.31.4 2006, (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBN

Korean

Hanja

? (eumhun ? ? (set sam))

  1. Hanja form? of ? ("three").

Compounds

  • (, samgakbeop)
  • (, samgakhyeong)
  • (, samnyuncha)
  • (, samsaekgi)
  • (, samseong)
  • (, samyeopgi)
  • (, samwol)
  • (, samcho)

Vietnamese

Han character

?: Hán Vi?t readings: tam (?()?(cam)?(thi?t))[1][2][3][4]
?: Nôm readings: tam[1][2][3][4][5][6], ba[1], tám[5]

  1. Hán t? form of tam ("three").

Compounds

References


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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