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See also: -, - [U+2013 EN DASH], - [U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS], - [U+2212 MINUS SIGN], -- [U+2014 EM DASH], ? [U+30FC KATAKANA-HIRAGANA PROLONGED SOUND MARK], ? [U+4E28 CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E28], ? [U+3127 BOPOMOFO LETTER I], ? [U+31AA BOPOMOFO LETTER INN], and ? [U+4EA0 CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4EA0]
It-?.png
U+4E00, 一
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E00
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Translingual

Stroke order
?-order.gif

Alternative forms

Han character

Stroke order
1 stroke

? (radical 1, ?+0, 1 stroke, cangjie input ? (M), four-corner 10000)

  1. Kangxi radical #1, ?.
  2. Shuowen Jiezi radical No1

Derived characters

Related characters

  • ? (Financial form of ?)
  • ? (Japanese shinjitai of ?)
  • ? (Ancient form of ?)

Descendants

References

  • KangXi: page 75, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1
  • Dae Jaweon: page 129, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 1, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+4E00

Further reading

Chinese Wikisource has digitized text of the Kangxi Dictionary entry for ?:

Wikisource


Chinese

simp. and trad.
?
alternative forms ? financial
?
?
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • ? (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • ? (Cantonese)
  • ? (Classical)

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character ?
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming) Libian (compiled in Qing)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts Clerical script
ACC-B00002.svg ?-oracle.svg ?-bronze.svg ACC-B00014.svg ACC-B00015.svg ?-silk.svg ?-slip.svg ?-ancient.svg ?-seal.svg ?-bigseal.svg ?-clerical.svg





Ideogram (): a horizontal stroke, indicating the number "one".

Etymology

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *?it. Descendants from the *?it etymon account for the majority of the dialectal forms for "one" in Chinese (Mandarin, Jin, Gan, Hakka, Hui, Xiang, Yue, Wu groups, etc.).

In Min, an additional unrelated form is found and used as the colloquial reading for "one". Compare:

Fuzhou/Fuding suo?8, Fuqing ?yo8, Gutian syø?8, Ningde sø?8, Zhouning s8, Putian ?o?8, Xiamen/Quanzhou/Yongchun/Zhangzhou tsit?8, Leizhou/Haikou ziak8, Longyan tse4, Youxi ?ie7, Jian'ou/Songxi tsi5, Jianyang tsi8.

Whether all of the forms above are related and their origins remain unelucidated; they may be derived from ? (cf. ? ("single, alone")), ? (< *tjak ~ g-t(j)ik) or ?.

Some Fujian dialects use ? and ? for "one".

Pronunciation

Definitions

?

  1. one
    ???? / ????  -  y? cháng y? du?n  -  one short and one long
    ???? / ????  -  y? s? y? sh?ng  -  one dead, one injured
    ????  -  y? g?o y? d?  -  one high and one low
    ????  -  y? ti?n y?  -  one day and one night
    ???? [Cantonese]  -  jat1 jat6jat1 je6 [Jyutping]  -  one day and one night
    ????  -  y? zu? y? yòu  -  one left, one right
  2. each; every
    ???????? [MSC, trad.]
    ???????? [MSC, simp.]
    G?i t? men y? rén y? k? pínggu?. [Pinyin]
    Give them an apple each.
  3. single; alone
    ?? / ??  -  dúzì y? rén  -  solitary
    ?? / ??  -  zhu?ny?  -  single-minded, monogamous
  4. whole; entire; all: throughout
    ?????? [MSC, trad.]
    ?????? [MSC, simp.]
    T?men zài h?it?n shàng wán le y? xiàw?. [Pinyin]
    They played the whole afternoon on the beach.
    ?????24? [MSC, trad.]
    ?????24? [MSC, simp.]
    Zh?ngzh?ng y? nián d?u hu? le 24 xi?oshí. [Pinyin]
    All days took 24 hours for a year.
  5. same; identical
    ??  -  dàxi?o bù y?  -  not having the same size
    ?? / ?? [Cantonese]  -  daai6 sai3 bat1jat1 [Jyutping]  -  not having the same size
  6. (Classical Chinese) another; alternative
    ,?? / ,??  -  x?shuài, y? míng cùzh?  -  Crickets, also called cùzh? [lit. another name [being] cùzh?].
  7. With the verb modified reduplicated, expressing the transience of the verb:
    1. Indicating that the action has occurred only once
      ???  -  kàn y? kàn  -  to have a look
      ??? [Cantonese]  -  mong6jat1 mong6 [Jyutping]  -  to have a look
    2. Indicating the intention to try
      ???  -  suàn y? suàn  -  to try to calculate it
      ??? / ??? [Cantonese]  -  gai3jat1 gai3 [Jyutping]  -  to try to calculate it
  8. once; as soon as; upon
    ??OP??  -  y? dào OP jiù k?  -  it slows down once I get to the opening
    ????,???? [MSC, trad.]
    ????,???? [MSC, simp.]
    W? y? p?i le zhàopiàn, t? jiù lìjí chéngwèi zhòngrén zh?mù de ji?odi?n. [Pinyin]
    As soon as I took a picture, she ran towards the limelight.
    • ??,????? [MSC, trad.]
      ??,????? [MSC, simp.]
      From: ,
      W? y? k?ik?u, t? jiù f?ikuài de p?ok?i le. [Pinyin]
      As soon as I opened my mouth, she ran away at the speed of light.
  9. + for the first time; at the beginning
    ? / ?  -  y?jiànrúgù  -  to hit it off
  10. +surprisingly; unexpectedly
    ? / ?  -  y?zhìyúc?  -  How did things ever get so far?
  11. (LGBT, slang) a top
    ?? / ??  -  y?hào  -  a top
    alt. forms: 1 (y?)

Usage notes

Such is grammatically different from other tone sandhis of ?; it is used in the structure ? + nominal when in places where it can be replaced with / (y? gè), from which it was reduced.

See also

Chinese numbers
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 102 103 104 108 1012
Normal
(/)
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?/? ?/? ? (Taiwan)
/ (Mainland China)
Financial
(/)
? ? ?/? ?/? ? ? ?/? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Compounds

Descendants

Sino-Xenic (?):
  • -> Japanese:?() (ichi); ?() (itsu)
  • -> Korean:? (?, il)
  • -> Vietnamese: nh?t (?)

Others:

  • -> Ahom: ? ('it)
  • -> Bouyei: idt
  • -> Lao: ? ('et)
  • -> Shan: ('ét)
  • -> Thai: ? (èt)
  • -> Zhuang: it

References


Japanese

Kanji

?

(grade 1 "Ky?iku" kanji)

Readings

  • Go-on: (ichi, J?y?)
  • Kan-on: (itsu, J?y?)
  • Kun: (hito, ?, J?y?); (hitotsu, , J?y?)
  • Nanori: ? (i); (i'); (iru); (osamu) (wosamu, historical); ? (ka); (kazu); (kata); (katsu); (kazu); (kuni); (susumu); (tada); ? (chi); (tsukasa); (ten); (nobu); (hajimu); (hajime); ? (hi); (hiji) (fidi, historical); (hide); (hitoshi); (hitotsu); (makoto); (masashi); (moto)

Compounds

Etymology 1

Japanese cardinal numbers
 <  0 1 2  > 
    Cardinal : ?
Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
goon

/it?/ -> /it?s?/ -> /it/

From Middle Chinese ? (MC ?i?t?).

The (goon, literally "Wu sound") reading, so likely the initial borrowing from Middle Chinese.

Alternative forms

  • (financial/formal form) ?, ?
  • (ancient form) ?

Pronunciation

Numeral

?() o (ichi

  1. one, 1

Usage notes

  • ?() is always omitted before ?() (j?, "ten") and ?() (hyaku, "hundred"), but never before the "myriad scale digit names" including ?() (man, "ten thousand"), ?() (oku, "hundred million"), ?() (ch?, "trillion") and their combinations.
  • When before ?() (sen, "thousand"), ?() is omitted when ?() is not directly followed by ?(), i.e. not before ?()?() (senman, "ten million"), and the omission is optional.
    ?()?()?()?()
    senhyakuj?ichi
    1,111
    ?()?()
    hyakuman
    1,000,000
    ?()?()?()
    issenman
    10,000,000
    ?()?()?()
    sen'ichiman
    10,010,000
Derived terms

Noun

?() o (ichi

  1. one, 1
  2. term relating to the number one:
    1. the first in order, foremost
    2. the beginning
    3. the best
    4. a kind of; one of something
    5. (card games) an ace
  3. unity
  4. the bottom string of a shamisen or other Japanese musical instrument
Derived terms
Idioms

Suffix

?() o (-ichi

  1. the best in ...; the most in ...
    ?(?)?()??(?)?()??(?)?()?()!
    Chiky? no goraku wa uch?-ichi!
    The entertainments on the earth are the best in the universe!
    ?(?)?()?()
    Sekai-ichi kawaii yo.
    It's the cutest in the world.

Affix

?() o (ichi

  1. one, 1
  2. first, foremost
  3. once
  4. best, number one
  5. bunch, bundle
  6. entirely, wholly
  7. certain one
  8. merely, only
Derived terms

Proper noun

?() o (Ichi

  1. a surname

Etymology 2

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
kan'on

/it?/ -> /it?s?/ -> /it?su/

From Middle Chinese ? (MC ?i?t?).

The (kan'on, literally "Han sound") reading, so likely a later borrowing from Middle Chinese.

Alternative forms

  • (financial form) ?, ?

Pronunciation

Noun

?() o (itsu

  1. one
  2. the same
Derived terms

Affix

?() o (itsu

  1. one, 1
  2. first, foremost
  3. group
  4. entirely, wholly
  5. other
  6. merely, only
Derived terms

Proper noun

?() o (Itsu

  1. a female given name

Etymology 3

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
kun'yomi

?pi1to2? -> */p?it?/ -> /?ito/ -> /hito/

From Old Japanese.

Possibly an apophonic form of ? (futa, "two"). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Pronunciation

Numeral

?() o (hito

  1. one, 1
Derived terms

Prefix

?() o (hito-

  1. one, single
  2. all
  3. a bit
  4. a certain time
Derived terms

Etymology 4

Kanji in this term
?
?
Grade: 1
Irregular

Shortening of hito above.

Pronunciation

Numeral

?(?) o (hi

  1. one, 1

Etymology 5

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
Irregular

Long-pronounced form of hi above.

Pronunciation

Numeral

?() o (h?

  1. one, 1

Etymology 6

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
Irregular

Borrowing from Mandarin ? (y?) in the Qing Dynasty.

Pronunciation

Numeral

?() o (?

  1. one, 1
Derived terms

Etymology 7

Kanji in this term
?

Grade: 1
nanori

From (hajime, "beginning, first"), the (ren'y?kei, "stem or continuative form") of verb (hajimeru, "to begin something").

Pronunciation

Proper noun

?() o (Hajime

  1. a unisex given name
  2. a surname

Coordinate terms

Japanese numbers
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Regular ?() (rei)
?() (zero)
?() (ichi) ?(?) (ni) ?() (san) ?() (yon)
?(?) (shi)
?(?) (go) ?() (roku) ?() (nana)
?() (shichi)
?() (hachi) ?() (ky?)
?(?) (ku)
?() (j?)
Formal ?() (ichi) ?(?) (ni) ?() (san) ?() (j?)
90 100 300 600 800 1,000 3,000 8,000 10,000 100,000,000
Regular ?()?() (ky?j?) ?() (hyaku)
?()?() (ippyaku)
?()?() (sanbyaku) ?()?() (roppyaku) ?()?() (happyaku) ?() (sen)
?()?() (issen)
?()?() (sanzen) ?()?() (hassen) ?()?() (ichiman) ?()?() (ichioku)
Formal ?()?() (ichiman)
1012 8×1012 1013 1016 6×1016 8×1016 1017 1018
Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory

References

  1. ? 1.01.11.21.31.41.51.6 2006, Lua error: not enough memory (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), T?ky?: Sanseid?, ->ISBNLua error: not enough memory
  2. ? 2.02.12.2 1998, Lua error: not enough memory (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), T?ky?: NHK, ->ISBNLua error: not enough memory

Korean

Etymology

From Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory. Recorded as Middle Korean Lua error: not enough memory (Yale: il) in Hunmong Jahoe (Lua error: not enough memory), 1527.

Hanja

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. Hanja form? of Lua error: not enough memory.

Compounds

Numeral

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. Lua error: not enough memory one

References

  • Lua error: not enough memory (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, Lua error: not enough memory. [2]

Vietnamese

Han character

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. Hán t? form of Lua error: not enough memory.
  2. Nôm form of Lua error: not enough memory.
  3. Nôm form of Lua error: not enough memory.

Compounds

References


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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